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African Canadian Heritage Trail

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  • #31
    Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

    At the Buxton Settlement museum, I learned a bit about the African Canadians who served in the military. There was a whole battlion of Black soldiers. It was created becasue the Government refused to allow Black men to enlist. One of the residents of the settlement, Arthur Harding Alexander, wrote to complain and a battalion was created. Here is his son's story (his son, John Arthur Shreve Alexander, served in WWII).

    His father was Black and one of the early settlers at Buxton. His Dad was a teacher and taught at a school on the native reservation and later at the school that I visited a few days ago. Apparently the quality of education was SO high that the White families in the areas started sending their children to the Black school too and eventually the public school closed down.

    John Arthur Shreve Alexander was born on the Six Nations Indian Reservation near Brantford, Ontario on April 3, 1918. His father, Arthur Harding Alexander, was teaching school there at the time. His grandfather, John Henry Alexander, had taught school at the King Street School in Amherstburg, Ontario during the late 1800's and early 1900's. His great grandfather, Thomas Alexander, was a fugitive slave who escaped from a plantation in Kentucky and settled in Anderdon Township near Amherstburg, Ontario in the 1840's.

    John Arthur Shreve Alexander was in A Company of The Queen's Own Rifles, on the first Canadian ship to hit the beach of Normandy on D-Day. It is possible he was the first Canadian soldier on the beach for his first task was to blow up the barbed wire entanglement along the beach. He fought through France, Holland, England, Italy, and Germany. He was wounded several times and returned a highly decorated war veteran. His acts of bravery are documented historical fact housed in the War Memorial Archives in Toronto, Ontario. The following is his war story which appeared in McLeans magazine June 6, 1994:

    Nervously Waiting at Home

    The hedgerows and hills of Normandy are far removed from the gently rolling southwestern Ontario countryside where John and Jean Alexander lived in their cozy ranch house just outside North Buxton. But the memories of the events 50 years earlier, when John Alexander was a young rifleman fighting on French soil, are still vivid. The couple were married in Jean's hometown of Chatham, Ont. on Dec. 30, 1942, just eight months before Cpl. John Alexander left for England. Once there, the 24-year-old former railway porter was assigned to The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada, then stationed in Aldershot, southwest of London. But that posting would have been news to his 18-year-old bride. "I wrote letters to him all the time, but he rarely wrote to me," Jean Alexander, 70, says now with a chuckle. And it would be a long time after June 6, 1944, before she knew what part he played in the invasion of Normandy. "It wasn't like today, where you hear about things almost as soon as they happen," she says. "News about D-Day trickled in. We heard bits on the radio, saw some newsreel footage at the cinema."



    • #32
      Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

      Originally posted by Free JAH CURE dahjah:
      [qb] Nice work Tropsi baby as always.
      You are a great soldier for black ppl.

      When I first read Bromley and heard about Dresden and how it did jus up de orad from mi. I went looking for the town.
      If ppl only knew what racist country this was and still is.

      How South Africa modeled the Canadian sytem used against the natives to deal with their natives there.

      How dem hangle de chinese and even yt ppl who came from europe and Russia.

      Bwoy de history a Canada is not a good one atall. [/qb]
      Dahjah, please tell us about the some of the sites that you have seen along the African Heritage Trail in South Western Ontario. Also, perhpas you could share what it was like to grow up as one of the few Black kids in your area and school. This is a time of year when we MUST remember.


      • #33
        Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

        Thanks Topic... Some I have read about and forgotten and that was in my twenties. I know, Canada school does not teach Black History or at the time when I was attending high school there. You know the history that was taught was the stone age era. My son who is 9 goes to school here in the states and you know the states is consider a 'black country' so he knows more about black history in relation to the states that canada. With the info you have provided I will be going out to find and purchase a black canadian history book for him to read. The plus for me is he likes to read.
        Learning to love yourself is the greatest love of all.


        • #34
          Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

          Very interesting information being brought forth.

          My daughter who is also not within the Public School system has been a part of a group called Afro-olgy since she entered Grade 9 this year. The goals of the group is to instill black pride in the youth all year round and not just during Black History Month. The group meets daily at lunch and Teaches the history of blacks and their accomplishments in Canada.

          Lil' Ivory has also mentioned they have put together an event for March that will be held at Meadowvale Theatre in Mississauga. All are welcome to attend. Fairweather is a sponsor and will be donating the gowns for the girls to wear.

          Regarding trips to Pioneer Village, that is a regular trip amongst the schools. Every visit that has been made by myself and the girls it is always very busy.
          If you feel a little useless, offended or depressed. Always remember that <span style="font-weight: bold">YOU</span> were once the fastest &amp; most victorious little sperm out of millions!


          • #35
            Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

            The visits to Pioneer village, is that through a private school? I know my son has had that. Do the public schools now do this on a regular basis?

            The goals of the group is to instill black pride in the youth all year round and not just during Black History Month.
            This is the way it should be.

            The group meets daily at lunch and Teaches the history of blacks and their accomplishments in Canada.

            Lil' Ivory has also mentioned they have put together an event for March that will be held at Meadowvale Theatre in Mississauga. All are welcome to attend. Fairweather is a sponsor and will be donating the gowns for the girls to wear.
            I will look out for this. Thanks for sharing it.


            • #36
              Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

              More About Blacks in Chatham

              William Harvey

              Harvey came into the Chatham area around 1829. He was granted the rights to Lot D (or 6), on King Street, and set to building the first frame house in town. After some controversy, a petition was sent to the city council stating that the townspeople had no objection to a black man building the house. Upon its presentation to council, however, only one magistrate would sign the document. The petition was thus refused and, according to the land registry, the property was sold to Thomas McCrae for the sum of $100.00

              William and his wife were relegated to the Gore of Camden, where they purchased a farm. Harvey made carpentry and farming his livelihood until his death in 1892. All property and possessions were willed to William Hazzard upon the death of Harvey's wife, which occurred in 1893.1


              • #37
                Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

                Honouring Black History Month on VisionTV
                Special presentations include movies, docs and dramas

                A decade ago, the Canadian government adopted February as Black History Month in this country. The motion was introduced in the House of Commons by Jean Augustine, Canada’s first female African Canadian Member of Parliament.

                Originally established in the U.S. nearly 80 years ago by African American scholar Dr. Carter G. Woodson, the celebration known today as Black History Month pays tribute to the social, cultural and political achievements of Black men and women. VisionTV honours this tradition with a series of Black History Month programming specials, including movies, dramas and documentaries.

                VisionTV is the proud presenting sponsor for the Ontario Black History Society’s array of Black History Month celebrations and events in 2005. For more information about the Ontario Black History Society, please visit their web site


                Black History Month Programming Highlights:

                Documentary – Seeking Salvation

                Tuesdays, Feb 1 & 8, 10 p.m. ET, 7 p.m. PT, 11 p.m. A.T.

                For generations, the church has been the heart and soul of Canada’s Black community: a place of belonging for those who have been excluded from society, a source of dignity and strength for those who feel downtrodden. The rich history of the Black church in Canada is the subject of this two-part documentary, which traces the evolution of Black Christianity in this country through four centuries, drawing upon rare archival images, glorious gospel music and compelling interviews with clergy, historians and other experts.

                Movie – Race to Freedom: The Underground Railroad

                Thursday, Feb. 3, 8 p.m. and 12 a.m. ET, 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. PT, 9 p.m. and 1 a.m. AT

                This 1994 family film stars Janet Bailey and Courtney B. Vance as escaped slaves fleeing to Canada. They are helped on their way by the legendary Underground Railroad – a secret network responsible for smuggling thousands of slaves to safety. The cast includes Tim Reid as Frederick Douglass and Alfre Woodard as Harriet Tubman.

                Drama – Kink in My Hair

                Monday, Feb. 7, 10 p.m. ET, 7 p.m. PT, 11 p.m. PT

                For years, Novelette Campbell (Sheryl Lee Ralph) has owned a small but successful salon in the heart of Toronto’s Caribbean community. Now, some troubling news threatens to bring all her hard work crashing down: her former lover – and father of her daughter Michelle (Shakira Harper) – has passed away; it was he who gave Novelette the money to open the shop, and now his daughter (Kim Roberts) demands repayment of the “loan.” Tonya Lee Williams, star of The Young and the Restless, is Executive Producer and Director of this hour-long drama. The show, created by Trey Anthony and Ngozi Paul (both of whom also co-star), is based on Anthony’s hit stage play ’da Kink in my hair. One of the winning projects from VisionTV’s Cultural Diversity Drama Competition.

                Movie – In the Heat of the Night

                Tuesday, Feb. 8, 8 p.m. and 12 a.m. ET, 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. PT, 9 p.m. and 1 a.m. AT

                When a wealthy white industrialist is found murdered in rural Mississippi, local cops finger a black man (Sidney Poitier) as the prime suspect. But they’re wrong: he’s Virgil Tibbs, a Philadelphia homicide detective who reluctantly agrees to help them find the real killer. This 1967 film won five Oscars, including Best Picture.

                Movie – Mississippi Burning

                Thursday, Feb. 10, 8 p.m. ET, 5 p.m. PT, 9 p.m. and 9 p.m. AT

                Director Alan Parker based this controversial 1988 thriller on a real-life event: the murder of three activists in rural Mississippi during the civil rights struggle. Gene Hackman and Willem Dafoe star as a fictitious pair of FBI agents who must decide whether to compromise their own morals to bring the killers to justice. With Frances McDormand and Brad Dourif.

                Drama – St. Jamestown

                Monday, Feb. 14, 10 p.m. ET, 7 p.m. PT, 11 p.m. PT

                James Santiago thought he was done with St. James Town. But St. James Town isn’t done with him. Now a successful network television producer, James (Mark Andre Poyser) returns to his old Toronto neighbourhood after a former mentor is gunned down. Drawn into the mystery that surrounds the shooting, James soon finds himself at a crossroads in his own life. This raw, hour-long drama was created by the producer/writer/director team of Romeo Candido, Leonard Cervantes and Caroline Mangosing (who also co-stars). One of the winning projects from VisionTV’s Cultural Diversity Drama Competition.

                Movie – Lilies of the Field

                Tuesday, Feb. 15, 8 p.m. and 12 a.m. ET, 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. PT, 9 p.m. and 1 a.m. PT

                Sidney Poitier’s performance in this inspirational 1963 drama earned him the Academy Award for Best Actor – the first time that prize had ever gone to an African American. He plays an itinerant handyman who stops for water at a remote Arizona farmhouse run by a group of German nuns, only to be persuaded to stay and help build a chapel in the desert.

                Movie – Bopha!

                Thursday, Feb. 17, 8 p.m. and 12 a.m. ET, 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. PT, 9 p.m. and 1 a.m. PT

                Actor Morgan Freeman made his directorial debut with this 1993 adaptation of Percy Mtwa’s stage play about a black South African family torn apart in the midst of the struggle against apartheid. Danny Glover stars as Micah, a police sergeant whose world begins to collapse when a sadistic superior (Malcolm McDowell) demands harsh measures against local student protesters – among them Micah’s own son. Alfre Woodard also stars.

                Drama – Hotel Babylon

                Monday, Feb. 21, 10 p.m. ET, 7 p.m. PT, 11 p.m. PT

                The head chambermaid is a former engineer. The cook was a chemist. And the handyman used to be a police inspector. Meet the late shift employees at Winnipeg’s Hotel Zebulon, known to one and all as “The Babylon.” Skilled professionals in their homelands, they came to Canada seeking better lives. What they got instead was menial work, meager pay and terrible hours. But in this hour-long drama, they find themselves caught up in a series of events that will put their old talents to the test. Awaovieyi Agie, Soo Garay and Rishma Liv Malik star. The program is based on an original concept and characters created by Gerry Atwell, who produced with Glace W. Lawrence. Charles Officer directed. One of the winning projects from VisionTV’s Cultural Diversity Drama Competition.

                Movies – The Defiant Ones

                Tuesday, Feb. 22, 8 p.m. and 12 a.m. ET, 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. PT, 9 p.m. and 1 a.m. PT

                Sidney Poitier and Tony Curtis star as a pair of escaped convicts, shackled together and on the run in the Deep South. Despite their racial antagonism, the two develop an unexpected loyalty as they struggle together to survive. A thrilling blend of action and social commentary, this 1958 film – winner of two Oscars – was considered controversial for its time. Poitier broke through to stardom with his work here.

                For details and information about the airing dates and times in your area, please visit our web site at: (please check under the section "Schedules").
                in Memory of Marcia “Ackeegirl” Davidson


                • #38
                  Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

                  Dr. Anderson Ruffin Abbott
                  In the middle of the last century, Dr. Anderson Ruffin Abbott was a distinguished figure in the medical field in Ontario. His father, Wilson R. Abbott, was born in Richmond, Virginia in 1801, the child of free parents, and became a notable example of the persecuted Black freedman who fled from the south in hopes of safer conditions in the north. He ultimately emigrated to Canada in 1835, accumulated a modest fortune, and raised a distinguished family.

                  To understand the determination of Dr. Abbott to succeed it might help to understand the strength and determination of his father. While in Richmond, Wilson Abbott was apprentice to a carpenter, but because he resented being away from home at the age of fifteen, he ran away and went to Alabama where he worked in a hotel for his room and board. He went on from there to serve as a steward on one of the palatial steamboats on the Mississippi and was injured by a falling piece of wood. He was nursed back to the health by Miss Ellen Toyer, a maid travelling with a wealthy Boston woman. Wilson married Ellen in 1830 and moved with his new bride to Mobile, Alabama. There he bought property and opened a successful provisions store.(1)
                  The Nat Turner insurrection of 1831, in Virginia,(2) alarmed the white population, and many of the Black storekeepers feared losing their shops to White ruffians. Being warned of such an attack on his store, Abbott withdrew what money he had in the bank and headed for New Orleans with his wife and family. He never returned to Mobile and as a result, lost the real estate and goods he left behind.

                  Eventually he moved to New York and after encountering many of the same hostilities as in the south, he decided to settle in Canada. He lived in Toronto until his death in 1878, at the age of 77, at the home of his son-in-law, F. L. Hubbard. He proved to be an honourable, industrious and reliable citizen and was elected to the Toronto council from St. Patrick's Ward, defeating Captain Emsley by 40 votes.

                  His son, Dr. Anderson Abbott, had a notable scholastic career. He was educated in the Elgin Settlement, and was on e of the first graduates of the school started by Rev. William King, Anderson studied medicine at the university of Toronto, and in 1861, became licentiate of the Medical Board of Upper Canada.(3) In 1863, he served as a surgeon in the United States army at Camp Parker or Barker, and was placed on duty under Dr. Augusta. He was the surgeon in charge at the Washington Hospital until he resigned in April of 1866.

                  Dr. Abbott returned to Canada and in 1871, he married Mary Ann Casey and came to practice medicine in Chatham, Ontario. The Abbott residence was on Park Street beside his brother-in-law Philip Judah.(4)

                  While in Canada, Dr. Abbott was very involved in community affairs, as president of Wilberforce Educational Institute from 1873 to 1880. He was the Associate Editor of the Missionary Messenger, a monthly paper published by the British Methodist Episcopal Church(5), and president of the Chatham Literary and Debating Society (6). For one year, 1878, he was President of Chatham's Medical Society and one of the first Coroner's for the County of Kent. Dr. Abbott's office was in the Hunton Block on William Street, where he practiced medicine while in Chatham.

                  In 1881, he moved from Chatham to Dundas after a fruitful decade in this area. Dr. Abbott died in December 1913.


                  • #39
                    Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

                    Originally posted by cdmsunshine:
                    [qb]My son who is 9 .... With the info you have provided I will be going out to find and purchase a black canadian history book for him to read. The plus for me is he likes to read. [/qb]
                    A great book came out this past year+ and has received honours...

                    The Kids Book of Black Canadian History
                    By Rosemary Sadlier (2003), 56pp
                    Illustrated by Wang Qijun

                    Ages: 8-12

                    Kids will discover the inspiring stories and events of a people who fought oppression as they searched for a place to call their own.
                    Featuring fact boxes, mini-profiles, a timeline and more, this book offers a glimpse into an often-overlooked part of Canadian history.

                    One of a great many well written books also found at

                    There's also a few books about Mary Anne Shadd ((Trops))
                    in Memory of Marcia “Ackeegirl” Davidson


                    • #40
                      Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

                      Thank you SistahD. I am going to print off that schedule.

                      SistahD, I think I read somewhere that there is an African Canadian hisotry museusm in Ottawa somewhere. Is that true or is my memory playing tricks on me?


                      • #41
                        Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

                        If you visit the Black History Society at as well as a wealth of historical information, you will find great links, and for schools / groups / associations etc there are possibilities for speakers and loan of exhibit materials
                        in Memory of Marcia “Ackeegirl” Davidson


                        • #42
                          Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

                          Originally posted by Tropicana:
                          [qb] Thank you SistahD. I am going to print off that schedule.

                          SistahD, I think I read somewhere that there is an African Canadian hisotry museusm in Ottawa somewhere. Is that true or is my memory playing tricks on me? [/qb]
                          I believe there is one through the Black History Society listed above)

                          There are many places of historical importance in Canada and the United States. The ones mentioned here are places OBHS has toured over the years.

                          The Sheffield Park Black History & Cultural Museum on the shores of the Georgian Bay is a museum you will learn about generations of pioneer families who had lived in the Collingwood area.

                          The North Buxton Raleigh Township Centennial Museum is located on the original site of the Elgin Settlement. This is one of the communities in Canada where Black fugitives fled to after escaping slavery in the United States.

                          For many, the Elgin Settlement was the last stop on the Underground Railroad. The settlement developed under the supervision of William King and became a self-contained settlement for over 2000 persons.

                          Other settlements of interest includes the Oro Settlement. The Oro Settlement is one of the earliest Black settlements in Ontario. Construction began in 1819 under the guidance of the then Lt. Governor of Upper Canada.

                          Uncle Tom's Cabin is another place of historical significance in Ontario. It is located in the Dawn Settlement, Dresden. Josiah Henson is one of the founders of the settlement. He has been designated a person of national historic significance.
                          The North American Black Historical Museum & Cultural Centre is in Amherstburg, Ontario. The museum has a good Blacks in the Military section. Also, there is a large room exhibiting the profiles of Black inventors on the wall.

                          Negro Creek Road is said to have been first settled by Negro pioneers and their descendants. It is in Holland Township, 25 km south of Owen Sound. In 1995-96, controversy surrounded the naming of the road, as the Township wanted to change its name.

                          The Necropolis Cemetery is located in Cabbagetown, downtown Toronto. It is the final resting place of Lucie and Thornton Blackburn. They were former slaves from Kentucky who escaped to Canada via the Underground Railroad. They are credited for setting up the first taxi service in Toronto named The City. Also buried at Necropolis is Anderson Ruffin Abbot, the first Canadian-born black surgeon. So is Corporal Ainsworth Dyer, whose life was cut short by American pilots during a so called "friendly fire" incident in Afghanistan on April 18, 2002

                          Also, Black History Ottawa as ((X)) has pointed out - is inactive... visit the BHM Coordinator Sarah Onyango's site

                          Our only Black community newspaper, The Spectrum, can also be found there.
                          in Memory of Marcia “Ackeegirl” Davidson


                          • #43
                            Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

                            Ontario Black History Society's cultural centre/museum of African Canadian history for Toronto

                            The initial feasibility study was done some time ago by independent consultant Nancy Hushion and Associates with some funds received from Canadian Heritage's Museum Assistance Programme, resulting in what the consultant said was the most universally supportive initiative that her firm has ever worked on!

                            The second part, the creation of the business plan, is currently underway, and, upon completion of the report, further steps will be taken to actualize this project.

                            What can you do to help? You could check to see if there are any artifacts, that is, photographs, diaries, sales drafts of property, collections of your ancestors, or unique items that you suspect would have historical value or be of wide interest. These items might help to tell a story or be combined with other things to convey an experience. Your items in addition to the special collections that the OBHS already has such as the Mary Ann Shadd Collection, the Leonard Braithwaite collection, the Portia White collection and others, will assist in the telling and preservation of our story.

                            Your financial support is always welcome!
                            The Ontario Black History Society Museum Project
                            By Rosemary Sadlier, President


                            Toronto’s Black community has a rich history. The Ontario Black History Society’s dream of creating a museum related to African Canadian history is now becoming a reality. One fascinating part of that history is Toronto’s role as a destination for former slaves.

                            Developing a museum sprang out of the Ontario Black History Society (OBHS) attempt to save the site of Toronto’s oldest surviving African-Canadian church. The OBHS lobbied the City of Toronto to preserve the African Methodist Episcopal Church on Soho Street. Although the effort failed, it did have a positive outcome. In October 1997, Toronto City Council committed its support to establishing an Underground Railroad Museum. The council further resolved that the developer of the Soho Street property would contribute funds to help in the commemoration of the AME/African-Canadian church history.

                            The Underground Railroad

                            The Underground Railroad was not actually a train but rather a name given to a loosely organized system which helped fugitive slaves and free Blacks find freedom in Canada. On August 1, 1834, the British Imperial Act abolishing slavery went into effect in British controlled areas worldwide, including Canada. Since slavery continued in the United States, both Black and white abolitionists assisted Black people through providing them with financial support, directions, shelter, food or transportation. Later, the American Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 forced freedom-seeking African Americans, and often those who helped them, to leave the United States and enter Canada. The Underground Railroad ended after the American Civil War and the end of American slavery.

                            Estimates vary, but Ontario was the destination for thousands of people seeking freedom. They settled throughout the province. Two of Toronto’s most famous Black settlers to arrive via the Underground Railroad were Lucie and Thornton Blackburn. Their flight to Toronto prompted the Detroit Riots. Upon establishing themselves here, they became affluent by creating a taxi service.

                            The Underground Railroad Museum of Toronto

                            The first concept for an OBHS museum, was to create an Underground Railroad Museum in Toronto. With funding from Canadian Heritage, the Museum Assistance Programme (MAP), a feasibility study was carried out. In addition to the highly favorable level of interest in a Black museum found by Nancy Hushion and Associates, the feedback, as well as the diversity that exists among the African-Canadian population suggested that the concept be expanded.

                            Now, the idea of a staid museum exhibit only museum includes the idea of a community centre, a space within the museum where cultural attractions could be hosted. The concept was broadened to ensure that the history of the peoples of the AME Church/Black pioneers be a central point and that the more recent or additional histories those now living and contributing to Canada, that is, African-Canadians having connections to other areas in North America, the Caribbean, Africa, Europe or South America, be included.

                            In co-operation with Parks Canada, the Ontario Ministry of Culture, the Royal Ontario Museum and others, the Ontario Black History Society developed the interactive exhibit, The Underground Railroad: Next Stop Toronto!, to be gifted to the OBHS for inclusion in our museum. The exhibit, featuring various media, music and artifacts, gives an overview of the early Black population. It was launched at the ROM by the Canadian Minister of Culture in a nationally interactive educational event. Due to construction at the ROM, the exhibit was relocated to Black Creek Pioneer Village.

                            The Museum of African-Canadian History

                            Toronto is home to half of all of people of African origin Canada! Some African-Canadians may have roots or connections to the Underground Railroad, to Black Loyalists, or to waves of immigration sparked by WWI and WWII or Canada’s Domestic Workers scheme of the 1950’s. The change in Canada’s immigration laws in the 1960’s facilitated African peoples from around the world in coming into Canada. This diversity within the African-Canadian population will be reflected in the cultural centre/museum of African-Canadian history.

                            Again with the assistance of the MAP, a business plan, is being developed and should be available to guide our next steps shortly.

                            How can you support the OBHS Museum Project?

                            in Memory of Marcia “Ackeegirl” Davidson


                            • #44
                              Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

                              Okay, here is where you can get info about the 31 sites on the Underground Railroad tour:


                              Download list of teh 31 sites:


                              This network of sites of historical significance extends from Windsor up to Owen Sound and Barrie and they take in Chatham, Dresden, Buxton, to St Catherines to Niagara. I am surprised at how many sites are clustereda around Niagara and St. Cahterines. (Although it makes sense since these areas are so close to the border). There are commemorative plaques at each location and the Ontario Government has put up African Canadian Heritage Trail signs along the way.

                              Is there anything equivalent to this in the US?


                              • #45
                                Re: African Canadian Heritage Trail

                                Wealth of links...

                                in Memory of Marcia “Ackeegirl” Davidson


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