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  • Thanks; kia & Wahalla.
    Show me your papers.
    sigpic

    Comment


    • Since we are discussing Soviet connections, lets not forget Trevor Munroe.

      Professor Trevor Munroe, Independent Senator, points to a question put to him last night when he appeared on The Gleaner's Go-Jamaica Talk 2000 web site. With him is Go-Jamaica's secretary, Claudette Brown. -- Winston Sill

      HIS LIFE as a politician in the 1970s, his appointment as an Independent Senator, and his views on Jamaica's future, dominated the hour when Senator Trevor Munroe, university professor and trade unionist, appeared as a guest last night on the Talk 2000 series on The Gleaner's Go-Jamaica web site.

      Some of the questions suggested that Jamaicans refuse to let go of the Marxist/Leninist policy Dr. Munroe embraced in the 1970s.

      A three-part question from one participant was: "How do you feel about your accusation that members of the Communist Party of Jamaica (CPJ) were CIA agents?; Why did you dissolve the Workers Party of Jamaica"; and "Do you feel any guilt about your role in aborting the national democratic revolution in Grenada?"

      "I don't recall calling all those people CIA. However, in the 1970s while there were real CIA around there was also much paranoia. I regret if I called anybody a CIA agent who was not,"was Prof. Munroe's response. On the WPJ, he said the party made a big contribution to social reform, for example the Maternity Leave Law and the raising of the consciousness of the Jamaican people.

      But he admitted the ideology of the WPJ was "too rigid and we could not change to meet the needs of the Jamaican people." Dr. Munroe explained that while the WPJ supported and helped the revolution and the revolutionary leaders in Grenada in their achievements, the ideology which was shared and the organisational principles were not democratic enough, too rigid, and definitely contributed to the downfall of the revolution.

      "I share political and moral responsibility for that," he said but stressed that neither himself nor the WPJ were involved in any of the crimes that helped to bring about the downfall of the revolution.


      "I give the Government the benefit of the doubt," he said when asked whether his appointment as an Independent Senator was for the Government to score points. He added that the growth of independent opinion inside and outside political parties was a factor locally and overseas.

      It was difficult to tell whether he was disturbed by a particular question as he calmly and without hesitation reeled off answers to all that time permitted him. And the scholar in him was evident from his first answer to the last as his responses were detailed and even with the limited time he had to think about the answers, carefully thought out. He lamented at the end of the hour that his answers were so long thus preventing him from answering more questions.

      The strengthening of the quality and quantity of the education system and the provision of opportunities for people to fulfil their potential he described as Jamaica's greatest need.

      And as to whether the ruling People's National Party was "drunk with power and not responding to the call for astute leadership", the professor said the administration had good intentions but needed to "practice what it preaches".

      The University and Allied Workers' Union president said he was in favour of trade unions being more independent of political parties, and readers may be surprised to know that he represents a constituency -- the constituency of Independents.

      To the overseas Jamaican who was worried about the seeming lack of accountability in Jamaica, he gave the assurance that this was not true for all Jamaicans, but mostly for those at the top.

      http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20000310/f1.html

      I wonder when and why he changes his views.

      Comment


      • Michael Manley

        Thought this would be more interesting than regurgitating the facts we all know about him.

        D K Duncan, the People's National Party (PNP) candidate in Hanover Eastern, has hailed his late former leader, Michael Manley, as the force that harnessed some of the best and brightest minds towards the political process which resulted in "an unparalleled level of social consciousness in the people of Jamaica that cannot be reversed".Duncan, in a lecture last Tuesday at the Jamaica Pegasus Hotel in Kingston marking the 10th anniversary of Manley's death, described the late prime minister's first term in office as "the most exciting period of Jamaica's political history".
        He also categorised Manley as one of the greatest agents of social change in Jamaica, whose government enacted legislation that revolutionised the country's psyche.
        Manley rode a wave of popular support to a landslide victory over the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) Government in 1972 and stayed in office until 1980 when he was voted out by an electorate angry with his socialist experiment and general decay of the economy.
        His party was re-elected in 1989 and he served as prime minister until 1992 when he retired because of ill-health. He died on March 6, 1997.
        However, during his first two terms in office, Manley's government introduced a range of social legislation that some political analysts have praised for improving the lives of many poor Jamaicans.
        On Tuesday, Duncan, a key member of Manley's Cabinet in the 1970s, said it was very difficult to comment on the period because it was "so multi-dimensional", embracing social, political and economic circumstances. But according to him, "the country produced the right man, for the right time, to do the right things, for the majority of Jamaican people".
        Said Duncan: "He did not do it alone. But he was undoubtedly the intellectual leader, the mass leader, the leader of the streets, the leader of the Cabinet, the leader internationally. Wherever he set foot in the world, he was the leader, even among other leaders."
        He dismissed as a myth, suggestions that Manley flew by the seat of his pants on important issues such as education, saying the basis for the Government's declaration of free education was stated in Manley's book, The Politics of Change, published in 1974.
        Duncan directed the audience to chapter four of the book which begins with Manley's statement that "Every developing society must aim at free, compulsory, universal education as its highest national priority."
        Manley announced in 1973 that secondary and university education would be free, triggering intense debate for and against the policy throughout the country.
        Duncan said it was also propaganda to believe that Manley woke up overnight and declared his love for justice, and set about rewriting many social wrongs prevalent in the society at the time. According to Duncan, it was many of those myths which "caused people to run from Jamaica, and caused others to mash up Jamaica", some fearing that the island was going communist.
        The basis of Manley's love for social justice, Duncan said, came from his own sense of right and wrong, and from 21 years working at the grassroots level with the National Workers Union - the PNP-affiliated trade union.
        "It was this sense of justice," according to Duncan, which saw the passage of myriad social legislation, a majority of which benefited women, and children.
        However, opposing forces in the society made it hard for their easy passage into law, Duncan said.
        Among the legislation he cited were the Status of Children's Act, (Bastard Act) which gives all children equal rights to their father's estate, and the Minimum Wage Act, which determines the lowest wages to be paid to domestic workers.
        "Genuine leaders are people with a vision who not everybody will agree with at the moment, but who could summon individuals to share the vision," said Duncan of Manley.
        Pointing to the National Youth Service, a one-year period of voluntary service for secondary students who were not going to university, Duncan said Manley wanted people to have a better understanding of their situation.
        The programme, he believed, presented such an opportunity, but it was rejected by the ruling class "who did not want their pretty little girls and boys to mix with the children of Trench Town".
        Duncan insisted that if that interaction had taken place, much of today's misunderstanding between classes could have been prevented.
        Duncan also commented on the current debate raging over the stadium built in Trelawny to host today's opening ceremony of the ICC Cricket World Cup. A similar debate, he said, preoccupied Jamaicans when the National Stadium was built. According to Duncan, the National Stadium was the vision and dream of late National Hero Norman Manley (Michael Manley's father).
        Duncan recalled that even though it was Norman Manley's vision and dream he "almost never got to go to the opening of the stadium", because of the failure of West Indies Federation.
        He said, however, that history will absolve former Prime Minister P J Patterson, whose dream it was for the building of the Trelawny Multi-purpose Stadium.
        He said, too, that the PNP has been heavily criticised on various issues, including corruption, because the party has always been held to a higher standard than the JLP. But the PNP, he said, was still regarded as the party of ideas, and was always expected to set higher standards.
        But even though Duncan showered praise on Michael Manley, he revealed that there were times when the relationship between himself and the party leader was tense.
        He recalled that the then PNP Youth Organisation leadership would ask him to address their annual congress almost as a ritual, and "sometimes things were not as cozy as they should have been between myself and the party president. And sometimes if I were present, he would not turn up."
        http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/...e--says-Duncan

        Comment


        • Beverley Manley



          From stationmaster s daughter to wife of one of Jamaica s most charismatic prime ministers Beverley Manley s life has been an odyssey. As a young girl, starved of her mother s love because she was darker than her siblings, and forced to do housework while her sisters relaxed, Beverley was a modern-day Cinderella. Told incessantly that she was good for nothing, she defied her mother s prophecy, and triumphed over her ordinary beginnings first as a model in London and later becoming a household name in local radio, television and on stage.

          It was her path at the then Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation (JBC) that would lead her directly to Michael Manley and to Jamaica House. Marriage to Michael also lead to her political awakening; not content with being the docile wife, Beverly assumed an activist role in the governing People s National Party (PNP), becoming embroiled in the ideological politics of the 1970s that would eventually lead to her estrangement from Michael, the destruction of their marriage, her flight into the arms of a rival lover and finally to a self-imposed exile in the US, where she took refuge from the ire of the Jamaican elite for daring to walk out on one of their own. But Beverly was to redeem herself and earn new respect as a broadcaster, commentator and incisive interviewer on the immensely popular and innovative Breakfast Club radio show. Now older and much wiser, Beverly tells it like it is in this intriguing and revealing memoir. It is a rags to riches story almost; a story of triumph and loss; of rising again and finally one of redemption.
          Last edited by Tropicana; 02-24-2014, 10:22 AM.

          Comment


          • Trevour Munroe was the Jamaica's equivalent of Johnny Cakes... Politics by obtuse language, debate by name calling And clichéd slogans..... Had he achieved power he would have destroyed the economy more than the PNP did in the 70s....and I recall his speeches...thankfully he was never a serious contender...he would have buil.i read his blurb and newspapers regularly his opnion on marketing boards, revolution...of his holidays in Soveit union black sea coast, and how bob Marley was available there......I thought Potekim villages...

            His almost rabid disdain of Maoism, and how he called the Chinese revolution as betrayers of Marxism.... The term running dog much beloved by the Marxist fringe came out....the man repeated averbatum the party line from Moscow...

            He was right on the assement of Maoism, but my god he used Marx like a millennium Christian twistsm the bible....as the sole reference point....basically history end with the development of what he called a social democracy is kamunism....
            Only problem the bible is poetry, Marx is unreadable...


            Actually I realised he was talking crap because of Bob..... He cast bob as a proto Marxist revolutionary and ignored rasta....

            I read his policy of land reform......to call it a unrealistic joke......the gradual elimination of the small holders, through collectivisation, it essential called for the destruction of the organicly built communities of free holders into villages.. He had with the economics to demonstrrate y it would work....still what does wahalla know? He wasn't even a PhD..is a warlock in the Tropiverse......

            Hell I still can sing the Jamaican version of The Internationale......
            Last edited by Wahalla; 02-24-2014, 11:37 AM.
            What nonsense! How can you have a revolution without shooting people ? Lenin 26th October 1917...
            If Christians go to heaven, I do not want to go to Heaven: Hatuey. 2/02/1512

            Comment


            • http://www.blackpast.org/files/black...ion_Board_.jpg





              Smith, Ferdinand Christopher

              amaican-born Ferdinand Christopher Smith became a prominent twentieth century international labor activist and leader. At an early age Smith left Jamaica’s poor economic conditions in search of work as a migrant laborer. He spent five years in Panama, where he worked as a hotel steward and a salesman. After WWI he moved to Cuba and by 1920 was working as a ship’s steward.

              In the 1920s, impressed by their commitment to racial issues, Smith joined the Communist-led Marine Workers Industrial Union. Although maritime workers faced oppressive working conditions including high rates of disease, low wages, poor rations, and unventilated quarters, they had virtually no union representation aboard ships. This began to change as part of the New Deal’s support of labor unions. In 1936 Smith supported the strike against West Coast shippers. When maritime strikes spread to the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, Smith became one of the nine members of the national strike Strategy Committee.

              Smith was a founding member of the communist-backed National Maritime Union (NMU) and was elected to the position of Secretary Treasurer at its first convention held in 1937. This was the second highest position in the union and the highest union office held by any African American labor leader at the time. The NMU grew quickly in the late 1930s, and by 1944 represented approximately 90,000 maritime workers.

              The NMU was a Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) union, and like many leaders involved in the CIO, Smith wanted a union that welcomed all maritime workers regardless of race, class, craft, or ethnicity. As NMU’s Secretary Treasurer, he promoted labor rights and civil rights. Smith guided the passage of a non-discrimination plank in the union’s constitution. The NMU’s 1944 contract, accepted by over 100 ship companies, contained a pledge of non-discrimination. He furthered the cause of civil rights by participating in the National Negro Congress and the Negro Labor Victory Committee.

              The Red Scare that swept the country after 1945 soon led to Smith’s expulsion from the NMU. After World War II, Smith critiqued the U.S. government’s crackdown on labor unions. Since Smith had never become a citizen he was an easily labeled an “Alien Red.” Joseph Curran, president of the NMU, under pressure from the federal government, expelled a number of communists from the NMU, including Smith in 1948. Smith’s expulsion is a stark example of the decline of union power in the face of anti-communism. Smith, who had been under government surveillance for years, was detained by the federal government beginning in February 1948 and was deported in 1951.

              He briefly worked for the World Federation of Trade Unions in Vienna before returning to Jamaica in 1952. In Jamaica Smith organized sugar workers and led a union federation. These efforts failed to bear fruit when the government refused to recognize the union.

              Ferdinand Christopher Smith died in August 1961 in Jamaica.

              Sources:

              Gerald Horne, Red Seas: Ferdinand Smith and Radical Black Sailors in the United States and Jamaica (New York: New York University Press, 2005); “Ferdinand Smith, Labor Leader, 67,” New York Times, August 16, 1961, 31.
              I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
              Marcus Garvey

              satire protected speech soo more fiyah

              Comment


              • Domingo, Wilfred A. (1889-1968)


                The Jamaican born Wilfred A. Domingo was part of an influential community of West Indian radicals active in Harlem's New Negro movement in the early 20th century. A member of the Socialist Party and a journalist by trade, Domingo contributed to Cyril Briggs' Crusader and A. Philip Randolph's Messenger, along with a host of other community publications. He became the first editor of Marcus Garvey's New World and played a key role in shaping Garvey's race-conscious, nationalist ideology. However, as a class-conscious member of the Socialist Party, Domingo clashed with Garvey's capitalist orientation and ultimately broke with the UNIA. At the same time, Domingo was frustrated with the Socialist Party's failure to make African American rights a priority and drifted toward Briggs' more militant African Blood Brotherhood, which was closely aligned with the Communist Party in the early 1920s.

                In the 1930s Domingo became increasingly focused on his homeland and the issue of Jamaican independence. In 1936 he cofounded the Jamaica Progressive League in Harlem, which agitated for Jamaican self-rule, universal suffrage, unionization, and the organization of consumer cooperatives. Domingo returned to Jamaica in 1938 to join Norman Manley's People's National Party and served as vice-chair of the Trades Union Advisory Council. After returning to New York in 1947, Domingo broke with the PNP. Wilfred A. Domingo died in Harlem in 1968.

                Sources:
                Mary Jo Buhle, Paul Buhle, Dan Georgakas, eds., Encyclopedia of the American Left (New York: Garland Publishing, 1990).

                Contributor:

                Salter, Daren

                University of Washington
                I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                Marcus Garvey

                satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                Comment


                • John Russwurm


                  John Russwurm was a man ahead of his time. Centuries before scholars began debating such issues as “hegemony” and “the social construction of race,” Russwurm understood how the powerful used media to create and perpetuate destructive stereotypes of the powerless. He set out to challenge this practice, via a brand new form of media: African American journalism.

                  Although he helped to change the terms of debate on race in America, Russwurm was not a native of America. Born in Jamaica on October 1, 1799, he moved to Quebec as a child and then to Maine, where he attended Bowdoin College and wrote term papers on Toussaint L‘Ouverture, fiery leader of the Haitian Revolution. In 1826 Russwurm became only the second African American in the U.S. to earn a college degree. His graduation speech focused on the Haitian revolution.

                  The next year he moved to New York, where he met Samuel Cornish, an African American Presbyterian minister and editor. On March 16, 1827, Cornish and Russwurm published the first issue of Freedom’s Journal. White publishers -- specifically Mordecai Noah of the New York Enquirer – had long denigrated and attacked free blacks. Freedom’s Journal took direct aim at them.

                  “We wish to plead our own case,” the editors wrote. “Too long have others spoken for us. Too long has the publick been deceived by misrepresentation in things which concern us dearly.” The paper was strongly abolitionist, and it also sought to give African Americans pride in their communities. As such it included mini-biographies, poetry, sermons and birth, death and marriage announcements.

                  In September 1827, Russwurm assumed editorial control of the paper, but his tenure lasted only until early 1829. Frustrated over the seeming impossibility of ending slavery, he decided to relocate to Liberia, established in 1819 by the American Colonization Society. Russwurm spent the next 22 years learning African languages and actively participating in politics and journalism. He died in Liberia in 1851. At the time of his death, nearly 30 African American newspapers existed in the United States, all devoted to ending slavery.

                  Sources:
                  Michael Emery, Edwin Emery and Nancy Roberts, The Press and America, An Interpretive History of the Mass Media (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1988; The World Book Encyclopedia (1996); “Africans in America, Part 3” (PBS), Julius Scott on John Brown Russworm and the Haitian Revolution.

                  Contributor:

                  Cairns, Kathleen

                  California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
                  I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                  Marcus Garvey

                  satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                  Comment


                  • Walter Rodney


                    Walter Rodney, one of the most important Guyanese intellectual and political figures of the 20th Century, was born on March 23, 1942 in Georgetown, Guyana. Because of his working-class background, the period in which he lived, and his parents' political awareness, Rodney was introduced to issues of race, class, and empire at an early age. He lived in a West Indian society in transition and experienced violence, racism, decolonization, and the rise of local elites in this former European colony who propagated the old colonial systems and structures.

                    A brilliant student, Rodney attended universities in the West Indies before earning his PhD at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London in 1966. After graduation, Rodney taught in a variety of locations, including Africa, before returning to the Caribbean. He expressed sympathy for the working class people of the region and was sharply critical of the elites for mimicking colonial systems and traditions. He became increasingly drawn to Marxist, Pan-African, Rastafarianism, and Black Power movements. Rodney believed that that all people of the African Diaspora, wherever they may be across the globe, had a special connection and formed a special cultural identity.

                    Rodney's Marxism, however, was independent of the Soviets and Chinese, which he found dogmatic and counterproductive for the Third World. He was an avid scholar of comparative revolutions and wrote about the working class in Guyana. Rodney's most dramatic and long-lasting contribution to scholarship was as a historian of Africa during his stay in Tanzania. His first work The Groundings With My Brothers was published in 1969 and expressed sympathy with working-class people in Jamaica. He also published The History of the Upper Guinea Coast in 1970 as the expansion of his PhD research. Rodney is significant in establishing a new focus on African history and underscoring the need for black scholars to do history, to take back their past in order to make their own future.

                    His most important work, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, published in 1972, was a brutal critique of long-standing and persistent exploitation of Africa by Western powers. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa remains a powerful, popular, and controversial work in which Rodney argued that the early period of African contact with Europe, including the slave trade, sowed the seeds for continued African economic underdevelopment and had dramatically negative social and political consequences as well. He argued that, while the roots of Africa's ailments rested with intentional underdevelopment and exploitation under European capitalist and colonial systems, the only way for true liberation to take place was for Africans to become cognizant of their own complicity in this exploitation and to take back the power they gave up to the exploiters.

                    Rodney returned to Guyana and became involved in politics. He was killed in a bomb attack in 1979.

                    Sources:
                    Rupert Lewis, Walter Rodney's Intellectual and Political Thought (Barbados: Press University of the West Indies, 1998); Walter Rodney, Walter Rodney Speaks: The Making of an African Intellectual (Trenton, N.J.: African World Press, 1990); Anthony Bogues, Black Heretics, Black Prophets: Radical Political Intellectuals (New York: Routledge, 2003).
                    I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                    Marcus Garvey

                    satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                    Comment


                    • Originally posted by Tropicana View Post
                      Beverley Manley
                      yuh kno tropi mii was qwestianinn y de wives aff sum blakk men need fe be added?

                      den inn pop inn mii head behind everee great blakk man iss a grate iff natt grater blakk oomen
                      I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                      Marcus Garvey

                      satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                      Comment


                      • Robert Smalls (April 5, 1839 – Feb. 23, 1915)

                        Robert Smalls was an African-American born into slavery in Beaufort, S.C., but during and after the American Civil War, he became a ship’s pilot, sea captain, and politician.

                        He freed himself, his crew and their families from slavery on May 13, 1862, when he led an uprising aboard a Confederate transport ship, the CSS Planter, in Charleston harbor, and sailed it north to freedom. His feat successfully helped persuade President Abraham Lincoln to accept African-American soldiers into the Union Army.

                        As a politician, Smalls authored state legislation that gave South Carolina the first free and compulsory public school system in the United States.
                        I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                        Marcus Garvey

                        satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                        Comment


                        • Madam Efunroye Tinubu (c.1805-1887)

                          Madam Tinubu was born in Yorubaland, an area in what is now known as Nigeria. She was a major political and business player, who campaigned against the influence of the British Empire over her people and for the elimination of slavery.

                          She became the first Iyalode of the Egba clan and is considered an important figure in Nigerian history because of her political significance as a powerful female aristocrat in West Africa. Iyalode (queen of ladies) is a title commonly bestowed on the most prominent and distinguished woman in a town.

                          After Tinubu, a former slave trader herself, realized the treatment of Africans enslaved in Europe and the Americas was far more inhumane than the way slavery was practiced in Africa, she became a scathing opponent of all forms of slavery and used her influence to try to eliminate the practice in her region.
                          I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                          Marcus Garvey

                          satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                          Comment


                          • Noble Drew Ali (1886-1929)

                            Noble Drew Ali, who was born Timothy Drew of North Carolina, was the founder of the Moorish Science Temple of America in Newark, N.J., in 1923. Soon after there were branches in Pittsburgh, Detroit, and other major industrial cities of the Northeast.

                            Ali saw Black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey as the inspiration for his own efforts. He wanted to present to Black people a message of pride, self-determination, personal transformation and self-sufficiency. Ali also intended to provide African-Americans with a sense of identity in the West, and promote civic involvement.

                            His movement inspired other leaders such as Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad, leading to the creation of the Nation of Islam.
                            I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                            Marcus Garvey

                            satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                            Comment


                            • Benjamin Singleton (1809–1900)

                              Benjamin “Pap” Singleton was an American activist and businessman best known for his role in establishing African-American settlements in Kansas.

                              Held in slavery in Tennessee, Singleton escaped to freedom in 1846 and became a noted abolitionist, community leader and spokesman for African-American civil rights. He returned to Tennessee during the Union occupation in 1862, but soon concluded that Blacks would never achieve economic equality in the white-dominated South.

                              After the end of Reconstruction, Singleton organized the movement of thousands of Black colonists, known as Exodusters, to found settlements in Kansas. A prominent early voice for Black nationalism, he became involved in promoting and coordinating Black-owned businesses in Kansas, and developed an interest in the Back-to-Africa movement.
                              I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                              Marcus Garvey

                              satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                              Comment


                              • Matthew Henson

                                Matthew Henson (Aug. 8, 1866 – March 9, 1955)

                                Born to sharecroppers on a farm in Nanjemoy, Md., Matthew Alexander Henson became the first African-American Arctic explorer, and is credited by many as the first man to reach the North Pole, in 1909.

                                Henson was an associate of the American explorer Robert Peary on seven voyages over a period of nearly 23 years. Henson served as a navigator and craftsman, traded with Inuit and learned their language. He was known as Peary’s “first man” when it came to tackling the arduous expeditions.

                                blakk eskimo peeps?
                                I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                                Marcus Garvey

                                satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                                Comment

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