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  • #61
    Anyway, thought I would go into more detail about him.


    Carter G. Woodson was the son of former slaves James and Eliza Riddle Woodson. His father had helped the Union soldiers during the Civil War, and afterwards he moved his family to West Virginia where a high school for blacks was being built. Coming from a large, poor family, Carter could not regularly attend school, but through self-instruction he was able to master the fundamentals of common school subjects by the time he was 17.
    In 1895, at the age of 20, Woodson entered Douglass High School where he received his diploma in less than two years. From 1897 to 1900, he began teaching in Fayette County, and he later became the principal of his own alma mater. Woodson finally received his bachelor's degree from Berea College in Kentucky. From 1903 to 1907 he was a school supervisor in the Philippines. He then attended the University of Chicago where he received his master's in 1908, and in 1912, he received his Ph.D. in history from Harvard University.
    In 1915, Woodson and Jesse E. Moorland co-founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (ASNLH). The organization was the platform that launched Woodson's mission to raise awareness and recognize the importance of Black history. He believed that publishing scientific history about the black race would produce facts that would prove to the world that Africa and its people had played a crucial role in the development of civilization. Thus he established a scholarly journal, The Journal of Negro History, a year after he formed the ASNLH.
    Seeing the need to spread the news about Black history to the general public as well as scholars, Woodson and the ASNLH pioneered the celebration of "Negro History Week" in 1926, which has since been extended to the entire month of February. Even with the monumental duties connected with the association, Woodson still found time to write extensive and scholarly works such as “The History of the Negro Church” (1922), "The Mis-Education of the Negro" (1933) and many other books that continue to have wide readership today. Woodson's other far-reaching activities included the organization in 1920 of the Associated Publishers, the oldest African American publishing company in the United States.
    Woodson is buried at Lincoln Memorial Cemetery in Suitland-Silver Hill, Md. His Washington, D.C., home has been preserved as the Carter G. Woodson Home National Historic Site.

    Comment


    • #62
      Originally posted by jah_yout View Post
      2nd Kings; 19:9

      Now Sennacherib received a report that Tirhakah, the king of Cush,[a] was marching out to fight against him. So he again sent messengers to Hezekiah with this word:


      Isaiah 37:9
      When he heard them say concerning Tirhakah king of Cush, "He has come out to fight against you," and when he heard it he sent messengers to Hezekiah, saying, 10"Thus you shall say to Hezekiah king of Judah,

      Taharqa, a son and third successor of King Piye, was the greatest of the Nubian pharaohs. His empire stretched from Palestine to the confluence of the Blue and White Niles. About 684 B.C. the Nile rose in a great flood. Taharqa's kingdom brought an exceptional harvest that year, and the kingdom grew rich. He ordered many construction projects, and built or renewed many fine temples in Egypt. The early years of his reign were very prosperous

      [ATTACH=CONFIG]2153[/ATTACH]
      ...
      I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
      Marcus Garvey

      satire protected speech soo more fiyah

      Comment


      • #63
        wan aff da meaning aff mzungu is amazing


        diss mzungu was a hero and an important part aff black history

        John Brown
        1800 - 1859


        http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/images/4john26s.jpg





        John Brown was a man of action -- a man who would not be deterred from his mission of abolishing slavery. On October 16, 1859, he led 21 men on a raid of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. His plan to arm slaves with the weapons he and his men seized from the arsenal was thwarted, however, by local farmers, militiamen, and Marines led by Robert E. Lee. Within 36 hours of the attack, most of Brown's men had been killed or captured.

        John Brown was born into a deeply religious family in Torrington, Connecticut, in 1800. Led by a father who was vehemently opposed to slavery, the family moved to northern Ohio when John was five, to a district that would become known for its antislavery views.

        During his first fifty years, Brown moved about the country, settling in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New York, and taking along his ever-growing family. (He would father twenty children.) Working at various times as a farmer, wool merchant, tanner, and land speculator, he never was finacially successful -- he even filed for bankruptcy when in his forties. His lack of funds, however, did not keep him from supporting causes he believed in. He helped finance the publication of David Walker's Appeal and Henry Highland's "Call to Rebellion" speech. He gave land to fugitive slaves. He and his wife agreed to raise a black youth as one of their own. He also participated in the Underground Railroad and, in 1851, helped establish the League of Gileadites, an organization that worked to protect escaped slaves from slave catchers.

        In 1847 Frederick Douglass met Brown for the first time in Springfield, Massachusetts. Of the meeting Douglass stated that, "though a white gentleman, [Brown] is in sympathy a black man, and as deeply interested in our cause, as though his own soul had been pierced with the iron of slavery." It was at this meeting that Brown first outlined his plan to Douglass to lead a war to free slaves.

        Brown moved to the black community of North Elba, New York, in 1849. The community had been established thanks to the philanthropy of Gerrit Smith, who donated tracts of at least 50 acres to black families willing to clear and farm the land. Brown, knowing that many of the families were finding life in this isolated area difficult, offered to establish his own farm there as well, in order to lead the blacks by his example and to act as a "kind father to them."

        Despite his contributions to the antislavery cause, Brown did not emerge as a figure of major significance until 1855 after he followed five of his sons to the Kansas territory. There, he became the leader of antislavery guerillas and fought a proslavery attack against the antislavery town of Lawrence. The following year, in retribution for another attack, Brown went to a proslavery town and brutally killed five of its settlers. Brown and his sons would continue to fight in the territory and in Missouri for the rest of the year.

        Brown returned to the east and began to think more seriously about his plan for a war in Virginia against slavery. He sought money to fund an "army" he would lead. On October 16, 1859, he set his plan to action when he and 21 other men -- 5 blacks and 16 whites -- raided the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry.

        Brown was wounded and quickly captured, and moved to Charlestown, Virginia, where he was tried and convicted of treason, Before hearing his sentence, Brown was allowed make an address to the court.


        . . . I believe to have interfered as I have done, . . . in behalf of His despised poor, was not wrong, but right. Now, if it be deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children, and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I submit: so let it be done."



        Although initially shocked by Brown's exploits, many Northerners began to speak favorably of the militant abolitionist. "He did not recognize unjust human laws, but resisted them as he was bid. . . .," said Henry David Thoreau in an address to the citizens of Concord, Massachusetts. "No man in America has ever stood up so persistently and effectively for the dignity of human nature. . . ."

        John Brown was hanged on December 2, 1859.


        imagine a mzungu woo was willing to die to free blakks. imm didd wat a latt aff blakks misleaders neva add da courage fe do
        I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
        Marcus Garvey

        satire protected speech soo more fiyah

        Comment


        • #64
          http://www.johnhorse.com/

          Rebellion:
          John Horse and the Black Seminoles, the first Black Rebels to beat American Slavery


          Who were the Black Seminoles?



          You can also get an overview of Black Seminole history from this interactive map of their 19th-century odyssey. spacer
          The Black Seminoles were free blacks and fugitive slaves who forged a strategic alliance with Seminole Indians in Spanish Florida during the early 1800s.[1] Their ancestors reached Florida through a variety of means, such as escape from American plantations, liberation by Spanish masters, and possibly escapes from early slave ships or exploring parties. While some individual Black Seminoles were fugitive slaves, as a community, they were known as maroons -- a term that describes free and quasi-free blacks who escaped to the wilderness in the New World to create their own societies. Maroon communities were found all over the New World, especially in Brazil and the Caribbean. The Black Seminoles were by far the most extensive maroon community in North America.[2]

          "Black Seminoles" is a 20th-century term. We have no idea how the rebels described themselves in the 1800s, although outsiders used a variety of names -- maroons, Seminole Negroes, Indian Negroes, and, in the memorable phrase of one Revolutionary-era American general, "the Exiles of America."[3] In the 1850s, when the maroons relocated to Mexico, they adopted the name mascogos, a Spanish term that appeared to refer to their Muskogee-Creek origins in the Southeast. On their return to the U.S. in the 1870s, the group became known as Seminole Negroes but were sometimes called Seminoles or even Seminole Indians. Descendants today continue to use different names for themselves, but a majority of English-speakers have settled on Black Seminoles, the term adopted by modern historians.[4]

          Despite the name, not all members of the community were traditionally allied with Seminole Indians. Out west and even in Florida, the community absorbed former slaves of the Creek and Cherokee Indians along with black refugees from a variety of circumstances. In Mexico over the last century, the mascogos intermarried with local residents, creating a diverse contemporary population.

          Back to Top
          Were they Indians?

          Yes and no, depending on how one defines the term. This question has a straightforward answer, based on nineteenth-century definitions, and no definitive answer at all, based on contemporary definitions.

          First, the straightforward answer: In the nineteenth century, were the Black Seminoles considered Indians or negroes?

          In the nineteenth century, the Black Seminoles were considered negroes, since they were primarily descendants of free blacks and fugitive slaves.

          Under the prevailing customs of North America, they were considered negroes in the nineteenth century, African Americans today. This was (and is) an external definition of their ethnic identity, as opposed to the internal definition adopted by members of the community then or now. Some members of the Black Seminole community might have disputed this classification in the nineteenth century, and would now. This is often the case with external ethnic classifications. (See the answer to the next question for more on this.)

          Historically, though they were identified with Seminole Indians, the Black Seminoles formed a distinct community within the Seminole confederation. That they were not considered Native Americans was made plain during the First and Second Seminole Wars (1817-18, 1835-42), when American slaveholders sought to reduce the "Seminole negroes" to chattel slavery, an honor that was not bestowed on the Indians.[5]

          Legally, the group has never been officially recognized as a Native American community. Legal complications relating to their ethnicity have plagued the Black Seminoles throughout their history and continue to cause problems in Oklahoma, Texas, and Mexico.[6]

          The story of these legal complications leads to the more complex question of their ethnic identity today, Indians or not Indians?

          Today, the Black Seminoles are sometimes described—and sometimes describe themselves—as black Indians. The concept of black Indians has historical roots in early America and was adopted by individual Black Seminoles (who often just called themselves "Seminoles") and others throughout the twentieth century. Among older Black Seminoles, for example, there remains a strong traditional sense of not being "African American." The concept of black Indianness is rooted in the historical reality that some African Americans and Native Americans intermarried, also—and this is more problematic historically—in the belief that some Africans were present on the North American continent before the arrival of Columbus.

          When applied currently in the Seminole case, the concept has given rise to a major controversy over whether or not the Oklahoma Black Seminoles (known as the Seminole Freedmen) are culturally or legally members of the Seminole tribe. Intercommunal debates over Seminoleness have surfaced periodically in Oklahoma since the mid-nineteenth century.

          The current wrangling has a new edge, however, since 2002, when the federal government awarded a $56 million settlement to the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma. This settlement has clouded the already complex historic questions of cultural, legal, and ethnic membership in the tribe.

          The basis for inclusion of the Black Seminoles as Seminoles or Seminole Indians is primarily due to several factors: the occasional historical incidence of intermarriage between blacks and Indians; the Black Seminoles’ adoption of Seminole cultural practices; and, perhaps most importantly of all, the ongoing political and social participation of Black Seminoles in the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma. Based on these factors, and on modern anthropological definitions of ethnicity, there is no reason not to accept individual Black Seminoles' self-identifications as black Indians today, or Seminoles. Ultimately, deciding these questions falls to individual ethnic groups and government agencies, parties that are by no means certain to agree; definitions of ethnicity, particularly thorny ones like the Black Seminole-Seminole question, are often issues that no one can settle definitively. In the Oklahoma debate over the $56 million settlement, different political players advance different claims; the courts have reached a procedural decision, and future courts could conceivably even rule on the definition of tribal status. And yet such judgments are legal and procedural, not the basis of true ethnicity.

          Recently, DNA analysis has been brought to bear on the question, with some on both sides of the issue seeking DNA evidence as a basis for establishing Seminole status. This is a very unfortunate turn. Anthropologists long ago realized that ethnicity is never a strictly biological form of identity. Strict biological definitions of ethnicity are in fact more properly associated with eugenics and racism than with the subtleties of ethnic identity. Osceola, the most famous Seminole Indian chief in history, appears to have been predominantly Anglo-Saxon in his "blood" or alleged biology, and yet none would deny his Seminoleness.

          It could be viewed as unfortunate that some Seminole Indians today who gladly embrace the heritage and political legacy of Osceola, and whose community benefited historically from the military actions of Black Seminoles like John Horse, now seek to use pseudo-biological evidence to deny Seminole Freedmen access to a major financial settlement. It could be viewed as equally sad that some individual Black Seminoles seek inclusion in the settlement for themselves (and implicitly, exclusion for others) on the basis of the same psuedo-biological evidence.

          The dispute could also be viewed as just another instance of the ongoing tension between Black Seminoles and Seminole Indians, two groups that since 1800 have partnered when it was to their mutual advantage and parted ways when it was not.

          Back to Top
          So they were African Americans?

          Yes, in the prevailing cultural terms of the United States and North America, they were African Americans in the nineteenth century. And even if one accepts the idea of the Black Seminoles as black Indians, they remain significantly African American.

          Because their ethnicity is central to Rebellion's point that the Black Seminoles were the first black rebels to defeat American slavery, the answer deserves some explanation.

          Their external definition in the United States

          A person's ethnic identity is never fixed in stone, and it is always defined from at least two perspectives -- the internal perspective someone has as a member of a community and the external perspective ascribed by the world that they live in. These two perspectives sometimes conflict. Native Americans of the 1600s, for example, thought of themselves as members of hundreds of distinct communities. They did not think of themselves as "Indians." Only gradually did they embrace a pan-Indian identity. Does this mean that they were not Indians? Of course not, it just means that they were Indians from one perspective, Lakotah, Dineh, and Timucua from hundreds of other perspectives. The same exercise works in reverse on the Europeans who colonized their land.

          Although we have no idea how the Black Seminoles of the nineteenth century described themselves, we know that the world they lived in then, and now, defined them as African Americans, following long established customs of American society.

          The United States has always defined the ethnic identity of African Americans, blacks, or Negroes according to the "one drop of blood" approach. Under this approach, anyone who appears to have "one drop of blood" of African ancestry is called an African American. This may offend people and it may seem confusing at times. It may also be changing in post-Tiger Woods America, but for now -- and for centuries -- this has been the American system.[7]

          What about their own sense of themselves?

          Internally, the Black Seminoles, like most communities, have a more fluid and diverse sense of identity. For one thing, the group includes many African Americans who consider themselves Black Cherokees or Black Creeks, because their ancestors had primary associations with these tribes, either before or after moving to Oklahoma. Black Seminoles who remained in Oklahoma traditionally referred to themselves as Seminole Freedmen, reflecting their status after the U.S. Civil War. In Mexico, the Black Seminoles traditionally referred to themselves by a completely new name, los mascogos, but this is gradually changing, perhaps vanishing.

          On a wider scale, in recent years a number of African Americans whose ancestors were associated with Native Americans have taken to calling themselves "Black Indians." There are several interesting Web sites on this topic, which can also be explored in William Loren Katz's historical primer, Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage (1986).

          The historical questions raised by black Indians are quite fascinating. Early white American settlers enslaved both groups, and in fact the traffic in Native American slaves was more prominent in the early 1600s, and remained the leading industry in the Carolinas through most of the 17th century.[8] Even after the enslavement of Native Americans was banned, planters found creative ways to define "Indians" as "Africans," which allowed for their enslavement.[9] Naturally, under such circumstances interesting ethnic arrangements took place.

          As a result, the Black Indian movement has a lot to tell us about American history. And there is no reason to question, on historical grounds, the perspective of people who assert that they are black Indians. They are, after all, asserting their internal identity, based on cultural realities that are every bit as valid as the "one drop of blood" approach.

          Back to Top

          Where do they live today?

          Today, the descendants of the nineteenth-century Black Seminoles are widely dispersed. The communities with the strongest, ongoing identities are in three areas: the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma constellated around Wewoka; the vicinity of the South Texas towns of Brackettville and Del Rio; and the common lands of los mascogos, the Mexican Black Seminoles, in Nacimiento, Coahuila.

          The Seminole Indian Scouts Cemetery Association in Brackettville is the center of the community for American Black Seminoles and their descendants. The association maintains a cemetery for the Scouts and their descendants, who gather in Brackettville each September to remember the dead and celebrate their heritage.

          Who knew about the Black Seminoles in the 1800s?

          They were not widely known, but they were well known to many prominent Americans, especially government and military leaders.

          Southern Americans had been dealing with free blacks and fugitive slaves in Florida since the early 1700s, and so their existence was no mystery to slaveholding political leaders of the time. Ten of the first twelve presidents argued or made crucial policy decisions on the status of the Black Seminoles.[10]

          Many of the country's military leaders became acquainted with the Black Seminoles either in Florida during the Second Seminole War (1835-1842) or in the Indian Territory, after 1838. Famous generals who dealt with them included Winfield Scott, Thomas Sydney Jesup, Zachary Taylor, and the civil war heroes William Tecumseh Sherman and William Belknap. Out west in particular, many officers had positive experiences with the maroons and came to see the maintenance of their liberty as a matter of national honor.[11] It is quite likely that the experiences of the white officers helped predispose them to accept the incorporation of African Americans into the armed forced during the U.S. Civil War.

          A third group of Americans who became familiar with the Black Seminole story, though not with the rebels themselves, were antislavery leaders. Interest peaked in the 1840s and 1850s, when Joshua Reed Giddings published his Congressional speeches on the Black Seminoles and then published the first history of the community, The Exiles of Florida (1958), a polemic that was heavily influenced by antislavery views. Giddings' legal arguments on the Black Seminole rebellion also appeared in antislavery pamphlets that influenced Abraham Lincoln, who was a strong admirer of the Ohio Congressman.
          Last edited by blugiant; 02-09-2014, 01:55 PM.
          I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
          Marcus Garvey

          satire protected speech soo more fiyah

          Comment


          • #65
            http://www.johnhorse.com/

            Who was John Horse?
            Few Americans know his story, but the Black Seminole warrior John Horse (1812-1882) was probably the most successful black freedom fighter in U.S. history. His accomplishments were amazing, despite his obscurity. In Florida, he rose to lead the holdouts in the country's largest slave uprising. For forty years afterwards he led his people, the African allies of Seminole Indians, on an epic quest from Florida to Mexico to secure a free homeland.[12]

            Over a long life he defeated leading US generals, met two Presidents, served as an adviser to Seminole chiefs, a Scout for the US Army, and a decorated officer in the Mexican military. He defended free black settlements on three frontiers, and was said to love children, whiskey, and his noble white horse, "American." In 1882, he fulfilled his quest for a free homeland with the final act of his life, securing a land grant in Northern Mexico. His descendants live on the land grant to this day.

            The life story of John Horse structures the trail narrative (although the narrative covers a wide range of other topics as well). To get as complete a biography of John Horse as possible, see Kenneth Wiggins Porter's Black Seminoles or Kevin Mulroy's Freedom on the Border, which adds some details to Porter. Both resources are described under selected books. As these books demonstrate, the known facts of John Horse's life are scarce, barely filling one or two chapters in all. To document his life, therefore, Rebellion draws on archival images and an evocation of his world to create an authentic portrait of his life and times.[13]


            In 1835, at the outset of the war in Florida, Abraham was recognized as the head of the maroon community, as he had been since the 1820s. Another prominent warrior was John Caesar, the historic ally of the Indian chief King Philip. With Philip, Caesar was credited with organizing the slave uprisings outside of St. Augustine in 1835-1836. The U.S. Army killed Caesar during the war.[14] Abraham, meanwhile, became the Army's leading hostage. After working with General Jesup, he later fell into disfavor with other Black Seminoles for reasons that have never been entirely clear, but that may have been related to his history of intrigues, some to the benefit of slaveholding parties in Florida and out west.[15]

            As Abraham fell from grace, John Horse rose through his daring and uncompromising actions during the Florida war. By the climactic Battle of Lake Okeechobee (1837), he led the vanguard of black militants among the Seminole allies.

            Out west, he represented the Black Seminoles in two trips to Washington, and the army recognized him as principal spokesman for the community. From 1850 to the mid-1860s he was the primary leader of the Black Seminoles in Mexico, although it should be noted that almost half of the community remained in Oklahoma, where they retained their own leaders. By the 1870s, younger Black Seminoles were following new leaders in Texas. John Horse retained a patriarchal status and appears to have remained the leading figure in the Mexican community until his death in 1882.[16]


            What did John Horse and the Blacks Seminoles accomplish?

            Here is a summary of major accomplishments.

            The Black Seminoles:

            Founded over a dozen black settlements in Florida before 1840.
            Created the largest haven for fugitive slaves in the Southern U.S.
            Survived two major U.S. wars and slave raids (1816-1821, 1835-1838).
            Inspired and led the largest slave rebellion in U.S. history (1835-1838).
            Fought the only maroon war in U.S. history (1835-1838).
            With Seminole Indians, fought the U.S. Army to a standstill in the largest and most expensive "Indian" war in U.S. history, the army's only non-victory prior to Vietnam.
            Won the only emancipation of rebellious African Americans prior to the U.S. Civil War (1838).
            Supplied antislavery congressmen with key arguments for overturning the "gag" rule in Congress (1836-1844).
            Pioneered a role for blacks in the U.S. armed forces, working closely with leading officers in Florida and the West (1838-1850, 1872-1914).
            Led the largest mass exodus of slaves in U.S. history, from Oklahoma to Mexico (1849-1850).
            Defended Mexican settlers from border Indians (1850-1856).
            Through the legacy of their rebellion, offered a legal precedent for Lincoln's emancipation of the southern slaves in 1863.
            In Texas after 1872, served as U.S. Army scouts, playing a key role in the final, major Indian conflicts on the Texas frontier (1872-1876).
            Established enduring communities in Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma.

            More specifically, John Horse:

            Helped renew the resistance in the Second Seminole War with two dramatic escapes (1837).
            Led the black forces at the climactic Battle of Lake Okechobee (1837).
            After 1838, served as a U.S. Army Scout in Florida, helping negotiate the surrender of more than 500 Indians (1838-1842).
            Twice traveled to Washington to petition the president on behalf of the Black Seminoles (1844-1846).
            Led the largest mass slave escape in U.S. history, from Oklahoma to Mexico (1849-1850).
            Founded free black settlements in Oklahoma (1849) and Mexico (1851).
            Rose to the rank of colonel in the Mexican military (1860s).
            Served as an adviser to the Seminole Negro Indian Scouts in Texas (1872-1876).
            Survived numerous battles and at least two assassination attempts (1835-1876).
            Either through his direct influence or his legacy,* secured communal title for the Black Seminoles to their land grant in Mexico, where descendants still live to this day.

            *The details of John Horse's final trip to Mexico City in 1882 remain murky at best, and it is unknown whether he died before or after visiting Porfirio Diaz, the dictator whose aid he was seeking to secure the Nacimiento grant. Diaz, who knew John Horse from his military career in Mexico, secured the title to the grant in 1887, five years after John Horse's death. See Porter Black 222-224.


            When did their slave rebellion take place? Was it really a rebellion or a maroon war?

            The Black Seminole slave rebellion took place from December of 1835 to April of 1838 in central Florida during the first half of the Second Seminole War.[17]

            Technically, it is a matter of debate whether or not the Black Seminoles themselves should be counted as direct participants in the slave revolt, since most of the Black Seminoles were considered maroons -- Africans who had lived in the wilderness long enough to establish a quasi-free status, albeit one unsanctioned by white society. Regardless of how the Black Seminoles are classified, however, there is no question that they led and inspired hundreds of plantation slaves who rebelled over this period, fleeing their masters to join the Seminole ranks.

            Except for a few specialists, historians have generally had a hard time dealing with the ethnic complexities of the Second Seminole War. As a result, they have often conflated the maroon warriors and the plantation-slave rebels, ascribing all of the black aspects of the war to the Black Seminoles while overlooking the role of the 385-plus field slaves.

            This confusion, coupled with ideological trends in American history, has led scholars classifying American slave rebellions to overlook the Florida rebellion for more than one hundred and fifty years.
            Last edited by blugiant; 02-09-2014, 01:49 PM.
            I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
            Marcus Garvey

            satire protected speech soo more fiyah

            Comment


            • #66
              John Horse

              Was it really the largest slave rebellion in U.S. history?

              Absolutely. To date, only two historians, Canter Brown and Larry Rivers, have suggested this, and yet a careful examination of the historical record clearly demonstrates that the country's largest slave revolt took place in conjunction with the joint maroon-Indian conflict in Florida over 1835-1838.[18]

              For a factual comparison, see the table of major U.S. slave revolts in this site's original essay, The largest slave rebellion in U.S. history, or see Rebellion's tally plantation slaves in the rebellion. The information toolkit on the rebellion includes quotations, sources, and additional details for skeptics. This site is the first source to substantiate with numbers and sources the claim that the Black Seminole slave rebellion was the largest in U.S. history.

              Aside from a few regional specialists, American scholars have generally been inattentive or ignorant regarding the role of plantation slaves in the Second Seminole War.

              Should we let historians off the hook because the war's ethnic dimensions were so complex? Or because the war appears to have been a minor event?

              Absolutely not. For one, the war was anything but a minor event. It was the largest and most costly Indian war in U.S. history -- more expensive and deadly than all the famous Indians wars of the American West combined.[19] The war was not forgotten because it was minor, but because it was humiliating for the U.S. Army, and in particular for the American South, whose vaunted white yeomen and gentry could not defeat the black allies of the Seminoles.

              Secondly, the ethnic dimensions of the war were not so complex that trained historians should have missed them. Alliances between maroons and slaves were not unusual in the Americas, but in fact were typical of many of the largest slave rebellions. From Jamaica to Brazil, maroons provided leadership and inspiration for some of the New World's largest revolts.[20] The U.S. generals who prosecuted the Second Seminole War were very mindful of these examples as they planned their military strategies. If the generals knew the facts, so should the scholars. Scholars of American slavery, therefore, especially those who have written about the foreign rebellions, have no excuse for having missed the facts on the Black Seminole rebellion.[21]


              Who knew about the rebellion at the time?

              Most of the country knew about the Second Seminole War, at least as an Indian conflict, since it was widely reported in national newspapers from 1835-1842.

              The black portion of the conflict, however, was not widely known. It was occasionally reported in the national press, but rarely in any detail, and almost never in direct language. The southern press had long specialized in a form of euphemistic reference to servile insurrection, a sort of code that managed to alert slaveholding citizens to danger while avoiding statements that might inflame slaves to rebellion.

              Over this same period, southern historians were rallying around the notion that national history could be a weapon in the political conflict over sectional interests, principally slavery.[22] Overall, this created an atmosphere that stifled open information on the black dimensions of the war in Florida. The ruling class of the South saw no interest in circulating the fact that black rebels were successfully challenging their allegedly superior masters. Southern lawmakers were also not anxious for northern taxpayers to learn that the federally funded army was suppressing a southern slave rebellion, attempting to return fugitives to their owners.

              In the aftermath of the bloody slave uprising led by Nat Turner in 1831, the southern press became even more reluctant to report insurrections in a straightforward manner, and slaveholders tended to view all dissemination of such knowledge as an act of treason. Under such circumstances, slaveholders countenanced various forms of censorship from 1835-1842 -- the same years that the war in Florida was taking place. These included censorship of the southern mails and implementation of the notorious "gag rule" banning all debates of slavery in the U.S. Congress.[23]

              These controls effectively kept knowledge of the Florida slave rebellion from the general public, at least until 1842, when Congress debated the issue. Most Northern members of Congress appear to have been unfamiliar with the slave dimensions of the war until the 1842 debates, which took place four years after most of the blacks had surrendered.[24]

              The dynamics of the war were better known early on within the inner circles of the military. In 1836, commanding general Thomas Sydney Jesup wrote to the Secretary of War, "This, you may be assured, is a negro, not an Indian war; and if it be not speedily put down, the south will feel the effects of it on their slave population before the end of the next season." Jesup was the most successful commander of the war, and not surprisingly the one who understood its ethnic dimensions the most clearly.[25]



              Why isn't it in most history textbooks?

              There is no simple answer to this question, which is essentially an academic mystery. The answer to the previous question addresses some of the reasons that the country overlooked the rebellion in its day -- namely, censorship, a racist sense of white supremacy, and southern fears that news of slave resistance would fan the flames of general rebellion. After the U.S. Civil War, white supremacy continued to dominate mainstream historical accounts of slavery, tending to minimize all realistic depictions of the South's peculiar institution.

              None of this is a mystery to students of history. The mystery, however, is how scholars continued to miss the facts right up until the present day.

              The whole topic is the subject of an original essay on "The buried history of the rebellion." Amazingly, as that piece and its accompanying essay make plain, the pieces of the puzzle that establish the size of the uprising have been available to scholars for decades. They are relatively easy to piece together even from secondary sources, which makes the failure of the historians all the more interesting.


              Why aren't the Black Seminoles themselves better known?

              Like the previous question, this one is something of a mystery. Without a doubt, however, America's legacy of racism has played a major role in the oversight.

              Had a community of white pioneers accomplished half of the feats that the Black Seminoles accomplished in the 1800s, they would have easily entered the national consciousness. Had a white man accomplished half of John Horse's feats, he would have certainly become a legend -- and in fact several white frontiersmen, like Daniel Boone and Davy Crockett, did become such legends, on slimmer resumes than John Horse.[26]

              Societies always crave heroes. Nineteenth-century America craved frontier heroes, men like Boone and Crockett who could embody the country's desire to move west and even, to a certain extent, market that opportunity. In the 1800s, however, America did not crave heroes who were armed and black. America wanted black Samboes, not black freedom fighters. The existence of the Black Seminoles threatened North and South alike -- and threatened, more importantly, the perilous unity between the North and South that white citizens were striving to regain in the difficult years after the Civil War. As often occurs, the extreme efforts at unity came at the expense of truth.

              And so, despite their accomplishments -- or some might say, because of their accomplishments -- John Horse and the Black Seminoles did not become legends, heroes, or the subjects of dime-store novels. Instead they became mere footnotes to history.

              Times change. Today, with a longer-term perspective on American history, it is clear that the Black Seminoles were pioneers on a number of frontiers -- geographic, ethnic, social, and political. Regardless of whether or not they are viewed as heroes, on the merits of their accomplishments, these rebels deserve a much more prominent place in American history.


              Why does any of this matter?

              For a complete answer to this question, see Why read their story? Here are a few thoughts:

              History matters, and it should be accurate.

              It makes a difference to know that your ancestors fought for freedom and won.

              Americans would be outraged if the country had somehow forgotten the true history of its most successful white freedom fighters -- and in fact pundits like George Will are routinely outraged when our countrymen forget far more minor details than this from American history.

              America never was the lily white nation of Pat Buchanan's dreams, as this story makes clear.

              The American past was as much an unfulfilled experiment as the American present, requiring the ongoing and at times self-sacrificing actions of people who believe that freedom is worth fighting for.

              Though people seeking power and short-term gain often appear to rule the world, those who pursue justice sometimes win out in the end, especially when they pursue it with faith and perseverance.



              Are there history books on this?

              Yes. Histories dealing with the Black Seminoles have been in print since 1848, with three excellent additions since 1993. See selected books for a guide to these resources, which are available through online booksellers and in most university libraries. The Florida Heritage collection has also placed one of the principal nineteenth-century sources online, Joshua Reed Giddings' The Exiles of Florida, with eventual plans to add Lt. Sprague's history of the Florida war.

              An expanded version of the material on this Website may also one day be available in print as an illustrated history.

              Interested researchers should also see the essays & articles section for a list of journal and newspaper articles available online.

              http://www.johnhorse.com/
              I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
              Marcus Garvey

              satire protected speech soo more fiyah

              Comment


              • #67
                Originally posted by Tropicana View Post
                Anyway, thought I would go into more detail about him.


                [/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE]
                tropi da deeper qwestian iff imm was a sellout?


                CARTER G. WOODSON & WEB DuBOIS vs. GEORGE GM. JAMES
                Carter G, the so-called "Father of Black History" and WEB DuBois, are two noodle-back negroes that couldn't find it in their soulz to do something as courageous and honorable as the late George GM James. James, a Master Mason, wrote the controversial book, Stolen Legacy, which was published in 1954. Shortly after the book was released, James died, believed to be a masonic death with it bein' said his neck was cut from ear-to-ear with his tongue cut out. Back then, if you were a Mason and you told secrets, you would pay with your life (not to say that isn't still the case today).

                His book clearly proved that Greek philosophy was stolen Afrikan history; demonstrated the Afrikan origin of the Mysteries Schoolz; and created a social reformation through relearned philosophy of Afrikan history. His work served as the foundation to Afrikanz finding themselves in Kemet before YT, thus giving our origin back to the Afrikan wo/man. He was also able to prove several of the so-called greek "scholarz" (pirates) were known to have studied in Kemet, or were instructed by otherz who had studied there, and those who had not studied under the priests of Kemet had access to the texts stored in the Library of Alexandria which housed countless plagiarized texts of the Mysteries Schoolz, and upon those greek plagiarizerz returning to their native cities, many were exiled or condemned to death (ie. Socrates and Plato); and as young students, they disappeared from sight only to surface decades later as masterz of various schoolz of thought foreign to their native landz.

                Carter G. became well known for his infamous quote, "When you control a man's thinking, you do not have to worry about his actions. You do not have to tell him not to stand here or go yonder, he will find his proper place and stay in it. You do not need to send him to the back door. He will go without being told. In fact, if there is no back door, he will cut one for his special benefit." Woodson eventually became controversial and wrote his bestselling Miseducation Of The Negro, yearz after being exiled from the Boule' along with DuBois.

                Woodson, a member of Omega Psi Phi, can be found receiving grant money from the Carnegie, Lord-Spellman and the Rockefeller Foundation to assist in his education programz. He also lost most of the grant money because he refused to merge his operationz (under direct orderz of the foundationz) with Tuskegee spy, R.R. Moton (a Sigma). These revelationz made Woodson realize he had made a grave mistake and began telling the people we were being miseducated by white people, not just in schoolz, but in life itself... yet he never gave any inkling to the black (nor white, for that matter) secret society he had once belonged to.

                This showz that although he had been disgruntled with the learned conspiracies of Afrikan people facilitated by the Boule' (under orderz of the Round Table Group), he couldn't bring it to himself to relay this vital information to the people. Maybe he feared his death, like GM James experienced. Nevertheless, he chose to bury the secrets with him—which showz he still obliged the secretly sworn oath of maintaining the status of white supremacy and never letting Afrikans know the whites who rule the world, who are responsible for our decreasing educational, economic and spiritual existence.

                Why is this so important? Think, if a loved one of yourz, say your mother was murdered and I saw it, I come to you tellin' you your momz been killed, one of the first thingz you're gonna ask me is, "who did it?" If I just told you "they" or "them," you'd be like "What?! Who is 'them'?!!? What's his or her name?!" Woodson writing his book tellin' you it's somebody but refraining from tell you who exactly only makes it that much more complicated to go after whoever we need to go after, feel me?

                DuBois was no better. He emphasized the importance to steal the Afrikan professional away from Marcus Garvey because an Afrocentric organization that articulated and "captured" the black professional would give YT no safe haven in the Afrikan community, so the making of the Boule' was necessary to build a group of loyal negroes who had an investment in protecting the white system as produced by white supremacy.

                He was quoted once calling Garvey a gorilla and monkey attempting to "Tarzanize" his back to Afrika movement. However, yearz after his exile from the Boule' he, too became controversial. Most associate him with the start of Pan-Afrikanizm. This devil, who sold our people out by duplicating Woodson's sworn secrecy (protecting/guarding) the secrets of the Boule'. This negro, who hated Garvey and Afrika so much, actually ended up moving to and eventually dying in Ghana, West Afrika. Talk about a spineless hypocrite.

                DuBois was also the first negro to write for the Round Table Group's offspring, the Council on Foreign Relations, magazine Foreign Affairs. Foreign Affairs published a series of articles in 1925 by DuBois, who's close friend Hamilton Fish Armstrong wrote the book, Hitler's Reich: The First Phase and was an influential member of the CFR. DuBois wrote mainly about race issues and imperializm, but we should also know it should not be a shock to know YT would not have DuBois unless they felt he was that "kind" of pawn that would protect their interests, as evident in his anti-Garvey rants.

                An article, 'The Collapse of the Only Thing in the Garvey Movement Which Was Original or Promising' noted DuBois felt Garvey's Black Star Line was “original and promising,” but went on to say that “Marcus Garvey is, without doubt, the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race in America and in the world. He is either a lunatic or a traitor.”

                Garvey suspected DuBois' beef was rooted in him being of Caribbean descent and more importantly, his darker skin. DuBois once described Marcus Garvey as "a little, fat black man; ugly, but with intelligent eyes and a big head." [cited by Robert A. Hill].

                In return, Garvey appropriately called DuBois “purely and simply a white man's nigger" and "a little Dutch, a little French, a little Negro … a mulatto … a monstrosity.” This led to a bitter relationship between Garvey and the NAACP [author of 'Negro with a Hat: The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey and His Dream of Mother Africa,' Colin Grant]. Garvey accused DuBois of paying conspiratorz to sabotage the Black Star Line to destroy his reputation. [aditional info: http://www.answers.com/topic/marcus-garvey]

                http://daghettotymz.com/rkyvz/articl.../boulept3.html
                I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                Marcus Garvey

                satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                Comment


                • #68
                  There is no perfection this side of heaven. So, the way I see it, we applaud these Black historical figures for their contribution tu this does not mean we overlook their faults. If we did, there would be no one to applaud at any time on the face of the earth.

                  Comment


                  • #69
                    Originally posted by blugiant View Post
                    wan aff da meaning aff mzungu is amazing


                    diss mzungu was a hero and an important part aff black history

                    John Brown
                    1800 - 1859


                    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/images/4john26s.jpg





                    John Brown was a man of action -- a man who would not be deterred from his mission of abolishing slavery. On October 16, 1859, he led 21 men on a raid of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. His plan to arm slaves with the weapons he and his men seized from the arsenal was thwarted, however, by local farmers, militiamen, and Marines led by Robert E. Lee. Within 36 hours of the attack, most of Brown's men had been killed or captured.

                    John Brown was born into a deeply religious family in Torrington, Connecticut, in 1800. Led by a father who was vehemently opposed to slavery, the family moved to northern Ohio when John was five, to a district that would become known for its antislavery views.

                    During his first fifty years, Brown moved about the country, settling in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New York, and taking along his ever-growing family. (He would father twenty children.) Working at various times as a farmer, wool merchant, tanner, and land speculator, he never was finacially successful -- he even filed for bankruptcy when in his forties. His lack of funds, however, did not keep him from supporting causes he believed in. He helped finance the publication of David Walker's Appeal and Henry Highland's "Call to Rebellion" speech. He gave land to fugitive slaves. He and his wife agreed to raise a black youth as one of their own. He also participated in the Underground Railroad and, in 1851, helped establish the League of Gileadites, an organization that worked to protect escaped slaves from slave catchers.

                    In 1847 Frederick Douglass met Brown for the first time in Springfield, Massachusetts. Of the meeting Douglass stated that, "though a white gentleman, [Brown] is in sympathy a black man, and as deeply interested in our cause, as though his own soul had been pierced with the iron of slavery." It was at this meeting that Brown first outlined his plan to Douglass to lead a war to free slaves.

                    Brown moved to the black community of North Elba, New York, in 1849. The community had been established thanks to the philanthropy of Gerrit Smith, who donated tracts of at least 50 acres to black families willing to clear and farm the land. Brown, knowing that many of the families were finding life in this isolated area difficult, offered to establish his own farm there as well, in order to lead the blacks by his example and to act as a "kind father to them."

                    Despite his contributions to the antislavery cause, Brown did not emerge as a figure of major significance until 1855 after he followed five of his sons to the Kansas territory. There, he became the leader of antislavery guerillas and fought a proslavery attack against the antislavery town of Lawrence. The following year, in retribution for another attack, Brown went to a proslavery town and brutally killed five of its settlers. Brown and his sons would continue to fight in the territory and in Missouri for the rest of the year.

                    Brown returned to the east and began to think more seriously about his plan for a war in Virginia against slavery. He sought money to fund an "army" he would lead. On October 16, 1859, he set his plan to action when he and 21 other men -- 5 blacks and 16 whites -- raided the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry.

                    Brown was wounded and quickly captured, and moved to Charlestown, Virginia, where he was tried and convicted of treason, Before hearing his sentence, Brown was allowed make an address to the court.


                    . . . I believe to have interfered as I have done, . . . in behalf of His despised poor, was not wrong, but right. Now, if it be deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children, and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I submit: so let it be done."



                    Although initially shocked by Brown's exploits, many Northerners began to speak favorably of the militant abolitionist. "He did not recognize unjust human laws, but resisted them as he was bid. . . .," said Henry David Thoreau in an address to the citizens of Concord, Massachusetts. "No man in America has ever stood up so persistently and effectively for the dignity of human nature. . . ."

                    John Brown was hanged on December 2, 1859.


                    imagine a mzungu woo was willing to die to free blakks. imm didd wat a latt aff blakks misleaders neva add da courage fe do

                    this is nice to see... I wrote he is one of two white people recorded to have a black inserrection in yankidom....However the Africans did not rise... Despite written his biography Fredrick Douglass was less than a fan....I read the book by Douglass on him, he did not paint a very symathetic figure...
                    i
                    s
                    What nonsense! How can you have a revolution without shooting people ? Lenin 26th October 1917...
                    If Christians go to heaven, I do not want to go to Heaven: Hatuey. 2/02/1512

                    Comment


                    • #70
                      Originally posted by Wahalla View Post
                      this is nice to see... I wrote he is one of two white people recorded to have a black inserrection in yankidom....However the Africans did not rise... Despite written his biography Fredrick Douglass was less than a fan....I read the book by Douglass on him, he did not paint a very symathetic figure...
                      i
                      s


                      da storee iss dat imm ask frederick douglass fe help by organizing blakks fe help fe be able fe armed blakks to fite fe dem freedom. den de plan was fe brukk inna armoree, steal guns ann bullets, go inna da Appalachian mountains ann fight. douglass ann addar blakk leaders were unwilling to die to free blakks butt brown was. john brown was a great mzungu ann didd a latt to tri to free blakks.

                      dat y cansidar imm hero woo deserve more respect dan sum aff da blakks inn diss tredd
                      Last edited by blugiant; 02-09-2014, 04:33 PM.
                      I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                      Marcus Garvey

                      satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                      Comment


                      • #71
                        Originally posted by Tropicana View Post
                        There is no perfection this side of heaven. So, the way I see it, we applaud these Black historical figures for their contribution tu this does not mean we overlook their faults. If we did, there would be no one to applaud at any time on the face of the earth.
                        peeps sumthyme ask y mii bunn fiyah pon certain blakks ann mii tell dem blakk peeps need fe critiques sum aff da so-called blakk heroes. sum aff dem blakks were sellout ann need cawl dem out
                        I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                        Marcus Garvey

                        satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                        Comment


                        • #72
                          WHAT'S IN YOUR HAND--Classic Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.
                          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fkpHpkZ_Udw



                          Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. was born in New Haven, Connecticut on November 29, 1908. He was the son of Adam Clayton Powell, Sr., then a Baptist minister in New Haven and his wife Mattie Buster Shaffer. He had an older sister Blanche and the family was of mixed racial origins, African, European and Native American. Powell Sr. had graduated from Wayland Seminary, Yale University and Virginia Seminary and was chosen to pastor the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, New York, eventually growing the church to more than 10,000 members.

                          Adam Jr., because of his father’s success, grew up in a rather wealthy household and attended Townsend Harris High School before studying at City College of New York and then Colgate University (his father sent him to Colgate, a baptist school, to put Adam on the right path and to get him away from the nightlife and nightclubs that he avidly frequented). He was a handsome young man and because of his fair skin and hazel eyes, he was often able to pass as being white (at birth his hair was blonde), often allowing him to avoid much of the racial strife that was directed towards his Black classmates. This caused a great deal of anger on their part towards him because he withheld his racial background from his classmates, even joining a white fraternity (very uncommon in those days).

                          His father encouraged him to follow in his footsteps as a minister. Adam Jr. (Adam) received his bachelors degree from Colgate in 1930 and then received a M.A. in Religious Education from Columbia University a year later. He later became the pastor of the largest protestant congregation in the United States.

                          He became prominent in political activism, fighting for employment opportunities and fair housing. He became the Chairman of the Coordinating Committee for Employment, mounting pressure on local businesses to hire Blacks on all levels of employment. He led very noteworthy protests. He led a “Shop Only Where You Can Work” boycott of all of store along 125th, shutting most of them down, thereby forcing them to hire Black workers. During the World’s Fair of 1939, his protesters picketed in front of the Fair’s headquarters at the Empire State Building which resulted in Black hiring to increase by 250%. Two years later he led the bus boycott of the New York Transit authority leading to 200 additional jobs for Black constituents. His activism on the part of the community led him to run for the New York City Council and he was elected in 1941, the first Black to serve on the Council.

                          Three years later he ran for a seat in the United States House of Representatives. He ran on a campaign of fighting for the civil rights of Blacks including seeking a ban on obstacles for voting rights (such as poll taxes), fair employment opportunities and a ban on lynching. Running as a Democrat, he was elected in 1944 representing the 22nd Congressional district (which included Harlem) and was the first Black Congressman from the state of New York. He did not try to ease his way in quietly and instead directly addressed issues that affected his constituents. With Jim Crow being the law of the land in the south and almost all of the southern Congressmen being segregationists, there had been no one willing to stand on the House floor and raise issues that affected Blacks throughout the nation. Powell would be the man to do so.

                          Powell did not make many friends, especially among the southern Congressmen but he stood up and addressed issues facing Blacks. One particularly noteworthy incident occurred when he stood on the House floor and chastised Congressman John Rankin of Mississippi. A tradition within the House was that freshmen Congressmen did not speak on the House floor during their first year. On this occasion, however, when Rankin used the word “nigger” on the House floor, Powell stood and announced “the time has arrived to impeach Rankin, or at least expel him from the party.” To take on a Congressman as powerful as Rankin demonstrated that Powell would be a force to be reckoned with. Powell would take particular delight in irritating Rankin. Rankin had called Powell’s election to the house “a disgrace” and when Rankin made it known that he did not want to sit anywhere near Powell, Adam would find any opportunity possible to sit as close to the Mississippi Congressman. On one occasion he followed him from seat to seat until Rankin had moved five times.

                          In 1945, having divorced Isabel, Powell married Hazel Scott, a jazz singer and pianist. The two had a son whom they named Adam Clayton, Powell III.

                          Powell served with only one other Black Congressman (William Levi Dawson of Illinois) until 1955 and they were subject to numerous informal barriers within Congressional offices. Powell protested and refused to defer to the bans on the “Whites Only” House restaurant, the Congressional Barber Shop, the House gymnasium and other facilities. He constantly battle segregationist on both policy and decorum and found allies within the Black community and organizations like the NAACP to push for equality for Blacks throughout the United States.

                          One method he used to attain his goals was referred to as the “Powell Amendments.” On any proposed legislation that would call for federal expenditures, he would offer an amendment that required that federal funds be denied to any jurisdiction that maintained segregation. This grated on both liberal allies and conservative foes but it gradually seeped into the mindsets of the politicians as they realized that Powell was not going to stop and was not going away. Some were not ready to give up their fight, however. During a 1955 meeting of the Education and Labor Committee, Powell was punched in the face by West Virginia Congressman Cleveland Bailey, a segregationist who was so incensed by Powell’s persistent use of the “Powell Amendment” rider.

                          His willingness to anger even his allies led him to buck the party ticket in 1956 and throw his support behind Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Powell was dissatisfied with the Democratic Party platform on civil rights and made sure that he was not seen as a rubber stamp for the Democratic party. He also sailed against mainstream opinions when he travelled to Indonesia for the 1955 Asian-African Conference which celebrated the recent move to independence from colonialism for countries which included Ghana, Sierra Leone and Indonesia. The State Department had asked him to not attend but he did so as an observer and ended up speaking of the need to end colonialism abroad and segregation at home while also defending the United States against the communist talking points being used against his country. Powell returned home to a warm reception, honored as “Man of the Year” by the Veterans of Foreign Wars,” and invited to speak with President Eisenhower. He offered the opinion that the United States was wasting an opportunity to truly compete with the Soviet Union by trotting out ballet companies and symphonies to tour around the world. Instead, he thought, the country should focus on presenting more current and popular American offerings such as jazz music, which was an American created style of music appealing to and engaged in by members of various races. Powell suggested sending well known jazz musicians to tour abroad, spreading the American art form to catch the ear of younger citizens of the world. The State Department agreed and set up such a goodwill tour including well known musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie. Gillespie headlined the tour which many referred to as “Jazz Diplomacy.” The musicians were able to meet with high-ranking officials as well as the common man and was considered a great success. One man who attended a concert in Zagreb, Yugoslavia stated “What this country needs is fewer ambassadors and more jam sessions!”

                          In 1960, having divorced Hazel, Adam married again, this time to Yvette Flores Diago, the daughter of the Mayor of San Juan, Puerto Rico. They had a son whom he also named Adam Clayton Powell (this son would later change his name to Adam Clayton Powell, IV).

                          After serving the House of Representatives for 15 years, Powell was finally granted a committee chairmanship in 1961 when he became the Chairman of the House Education and Labor Committee. The committees stated purpose is “to ensure that Americans’ needs are addressed so that students and workers may move forward in a changing school system and a competitive global economy.” Under his leadership, the committee created federal programs addressing Medicaid, minimum wage and equal pay for women, as well as education for the disabled, support for libraries and vocational training. Much of this legislation was incorporated into President John F. Kennedy’s “New Frontier” program as well as President Lyndon Johnson’s “Great Society” and “War on Poverty” programs.

                          Some of his greatest triumphs involved passing legislation to protect the rights of Blacks, particularly those affected by Jim Crow laws in the south. He authored bills to criminalize lynching, dismantle public school desegregation and to abolish the Southern practice of charging a Poll Tax to Black voters. This tax was applied to voters in many southern states, but a grandfather clause allowed those adult males whose father or grandfather had voted prior to emancipation to be exempt from the tax. As such, white male voters were allowed to vote while many Black voters who could not afford to pay the tax were prevented from engaging in the electoral process. The Civil Rights Act of 1965 included many of these provisions and called for enforcement of them.

                          His growing power made him a target for his political enemies. Unfortunately, in many ways, Powell made himself an easier target through his spending of committee funds, his legal problems, his erratic behavior and habit of constantly traveling and often being absent from the House. Without a doubt, many of the southern House members opposed him simply because of his race and looked for any opportunity to punish him. Unfortunately for Powell, although he had fight so hard against unfair treatment by House members, he had also given them plenty of ammunition to use against him.

                          In 1958, Powell was indicted by a Federal grand jury for income tax evasion. The trial ended in a hung jury but the Federal government continued to investigate his finances. In 1960, Powell gave a television interview in which he accused a Harlem widow named Esther James of being a “bag woman” for corrupt police payoffs. James sued him and was awarded $211,500.00 in a jury award. Powell refused to pay the damages and instead would only return to his district in Harlem on Sundays when he when he could not be served by court officials (the award was eventually paid out years later after he was cited for criminal contempt, but the matter damaged him significantly). In 1967, a House committee suspended Powell’s third wife, Yvette Diago, and accused her of being on the House payroll without doing any work. Diago, in fact, admitted that she had moved to Puerto Rico in 1961, but was paid from Powell’s Congressional payroll from that time until January of 1967 when the allegation came to light and she was fired.

                          He also travelled a great deal with stays in Florida as well as a vacation home he owned in Bimini in the Bahamas. House opponents accused him of using House funds to pay for this travel including once when he was accompanied by two young women at the expense of the Federal government (the women were Tamara Wall, a staff attorney and secretary Corinne Huff, the first Black Miss Ohio, with whom Powell was romantically involved). As such, the House Democratic Caucus stripped him of his committee leadership in January of 1967 and the full House refused to seat him until the Judiciary Committee completed an investigation of him. On March 1, 1967, by a vote of 307 to 116, the House voted to exclude him from its proceedings. Powell decided to sue to retain his seat. Although he won a Special Election to fill his vacant seat (by a margin of 7-1), he refused to take it, preferring to challenge his removal in court. In the meantime, in November of 1968, his constituents in Harlem defiantly re-elected him with overwhelming support. The House had no choice but to seat him now, but did so while at the same time denying him seniority and fining him $25.0000.00. In June 16, 1969, the United Staes Supreme Court decided 7-1 in Powell vs. McCormack that the House had violated his constitutional rights in refusing to seat him as he was a duly elected member of Congress. Unfortunately, after his Supreme Court victory, he seemed to rub it in the nose of his foes, showing up for only nine roll calls out of 177, a record for absenteeism. He was the most powerful Black politician of his time, but like many great men, it seemed hubris was to become his most destructive opponent.

                          Regarding his travel expenditures, Powell defended himself saying that “that I will always do just what every other Congressman and committee chairman has done and is doing and will do.” His constituents had grown weary of their Representative always seeming to have to put out fires, whether in the form of lawsuits, political fights or embarrassing scandals. He was defeated in the Democratic primary in 1970 by Charles Rangel by a mere 150 votes. He attempted to get on the November ballot as an independent through a signature campaign, but failed to do so and resigned from his position at the Abyssinian Baptist Church and retired to his home in Bimini.

                          In April 1972, Powell’s health began faltering and he was rushed from Bimini to Miami, Florida where he was hospitalized. He died on April 4, 1972 due to acute prostatitis, an inflammation of the prostate gland. His funeral was held at the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem and his ashes were spread by his son, Adam III, over the waters of Bimini.

                          Over the years numerous public schools have been named after him as has an office building in Harlem and Seventh Avenue, north of Central Park in New York City was renamed Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. Boulevard. His real legacy, though, is as a confident political figure when many Blacks were afraid to speak out against the racism and poverty that they saw. He was a bright and engaging leader who would not back down from his opponents and led the fight to change things in a turbulent society. Most of all, he is seen as a man who opened the doors for a lot of minorities who would follow in his footsteps as politicians in the Untied States Congress.

                          http://www.greatblackheroes.com/gove...ton-powell-jr/

                          great mixxed race man
                          I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                          Marcus Garvey

                          satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                          Comment


                          • #73
                            “I freed thousands of slaves, and could have freed thousands more, if they had known they were slaves.”
                            ― Harriet Tubman

                            ""I had reasoned this out in my mind, there was one of two things I had a right to, liberty or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other.""
                            — Harriet Tubman

                            “Every great dream begins with a dreamer. Always remember, you have within you the strength, the patience, and the passion to reach for the stars to change the world.”
                            ― Harriet Tubman


                            “Twant me, 'twas the Lord. I always told him, 'I trust to you. I don't know where to go or what to do, but I expect you to lead me,' and He always did.”
                            ― Harriet Tubman

                            “If you hear the dogs, keep going. If you see the torches in the woods, keep going. If there's shouting after you, keep going. Don't ever stop. Keep going. If you want a taste of freedom, keep going.”
                            ― Harriet Tubman

                            http://www.greatblackheroes.com/wp-c...630&zc=1&q=100


                            Perhaps one of the most amazing and inspirational figures to spring up not only in African American culture but in world terms is that of Harriet Tubman. She dedicated herself to the liberation and freedom of her people from the tyranny that was slavery, putting her own life on the line in order to do it. This is her unique story.

                            There is some dispute as to her actual year of birth. Some historians pitch it around 1822, while others estimate it might have been 1820. However, what is certain is that she was born in Dorchester County, Maryland.

                            Her birth name was Araminta Ross and gained her a nickname of “Minty”. Her parents were Harriet Green and Ben Ross.

                            Harriet’s early years born into slavery were horrific. She was regularly beaten by her master, and on one occasion was left with a severe head wound, which was inflicted upon her when her master threw a heavy metal weight, intended to hit another slave (who ran away), and it caught her instead.

                            As a result of this injury, she suffered debilitating headaches, epileptic seizures and fits and regularly terrifying nightmares and “visions”. At the time, medical science was primitive and little was known about these conditions, so she put the visions down to “visitations by God”.

                            In 1844, she met and married John Tubman. Not uncommonly for the time, the marriage was a “mixed” one, as he was a free man and she was still a slave. Marriages like this were not uncommon for the time, but they were complicated in nature because any children that came about because of the marriage would have to take the mother’s status as “slave” and would not be free like their father.

                            John, as part of a plan to get his wife freed and as a means of back into the world of slavery at a later date, insisted on changing her name from Araminta to Harriet, possibly after her mother. He did this to ensure that not only she was made safe, but any future issue from the marriage and also her siblings.

                            However, in the year 1849 Harriet fell ill again, possibly still as a result of the earlier injury she’d sustained and as a result her value as a slave was greatly diminished, so she took it upon herself to try and break free from the slave plantation she “worked” at. John, her husband, refused to go with her as he felt it was too dangerous and the chances of her being recaptured were far too great. She took her brothers with her, but they also feared the risks and returned back to their enslaved lives.

                            The first of many trips

                            This escape from the plantation was the first of many. On this first trip she was given a piece of paper with the details of how to make her way to a safe house. On her way, for her own safety she was put into the back of a wagon and covered over with a sack. She eventually arrived in Pennsylvania, where she met a man called William Still who introduced her to the Philadelphia Ant-Slavery Society and the workings of the UGRR (Underground Rail Road).

                            Once she had familiarized herself with the system, she used it to begin to plan journeys to free slaves from plantations via its network. During the day, she took on odd jobs, washing, cooking and cleaning to be able to pay her way but all the time was planning missions whereby she could move back down to the deep south where she had come from, pick slaves up and covertly bring them back north to freedom. During this period she completed twenty missions. These feats of bravery led people to nickname her “Moses” and she was loved among all who she saved.

                            She managed to rescue her sister and a brother in 1850 and 1851, three elder brothers in the year 1854 and finally freed her parents three years later in 1857, all the while putting herself at great risk. All in all, she freed over three hundred slaves in total. An astonishing figure.

                            During the American Civil War of 1861-1865, she worked firstly for the US Army as a general cook, cleaner and nurse, tending to battle worn soldiers. Then she was employed as a spy behind the Confederate lines, again a brave and humbling thing to have done after having endured so many hardships. In the year 1862 she went to live in South Carolina where again, she helped many hundreds of Sea Islander slaves to their freedom.

                            She believed passionately that freed slaves should have a right to be properly educated and alongside everything else campaigned for this too. In an interview from around this time she was quoted as saying the following:

                            “The Lord who told me to take care of my people meant me to do it for as long as I live and so I do what he told me to do”.

                            She was firmly and passionately of the belief that God had called her to help and it was her life’s destination.

                            The year 1869 was special for Harriet for a number of reasons. Firstly, it was the year in which she began to document her life for a biography written with the author Sarah Hopkins Bradford who had expressed a keen interest in her life. It was also the year she married her second husband Nelson Davis, a man who was significantly younger than her. The union lasted until his death some twenty years later from complications due to Tuberculosis.

                            go see da video iff oonnoo waan
                            http://www.greatblackheroes.com/civi...arriet-tubman/
                            I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                            Marcus Garvey

                            satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                            Comment


                            • #74
                              Malcolm X


                              Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. He died El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, and went into history as one of the most influential minds of the African world. Who underwent three amazing transformations in his short life. From Little to X, to Shabazz. His mother, Louis Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family's eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey.

                              Earl's civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm's fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little's efforts to elude the Legion, in 1929 their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground, and two years later Earl's mutilated body was found lying across the town's trolley tracks.

                              His legacy has become eternal in the foundational paradigms of progressive African thinking and Pan-Africanism. He is an icon beyond race and an influential figure in the social movement and a hero of Islam. Post-Hajj his journey broaden into a more nuanced and global understanding of the interconnection of oppressed people. He identified what the West was doing as a crime against humanity. And we believe it was this massive connection on behalf of all oppressed people lead to his execution by the US government, using confused elements in the NOI as proxy agents.

                              "Our people have made the mistake of confusing the methods with the objectives. As long as we agree on objectives, we should never fall out with each other just because we believe in different methods, or tactics, or strategy "

                              Police ruled both accidents, but the Little's were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Louise had an emotional breakdown several years after the death of her husband and was committed to a mental institution. Her children were split up amongst various foster homes and orphanages.

                              Malcolm was a smart, focused student and graduated from junior high at the top of his class. However, when a favorite teacher told Malcolm his dream of becoming a lawyer was "no realistic goal for a nigger," Malcolm lost interest in school. He dropped out, spent some time in Boston, Massachusetts working various odd jobs, and then traveled to Harlem, New York where he committed petty crimes. By 1942 Malcolm was coordinating various narcotic, prostitution and gambling rings.

                              "I'd rather walk among rattlesnakes, whose constant rattle warns me where they are, than among those Northern snakes who grin and make you forget you're still in a snake pit " Malcolm X

                              Eventually Malcolm and his buddy, Malcolm "Shorty" Jarvis, moved back to Boston, where they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges in 1946. Malcolm placated himself by using the seven-year prison sentence to further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm's brother Reginald visited and discussed his recent conversion to the Muslim religious organization the Nation of Islam. Intrigued, Malcolm studied the teachings of Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic and social success. Among other goals, the Nation of Islam fought for a state of their own, separate from one inhabited by white people. By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname "X." He considered "Little" a slave name and chose the "X" to signify his lost tribal name.

                              Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan and Harlem, New York. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, radio and television to communicate the Nation of Islam's message across the United States. His charisma, drive and conviction attracted an astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in the Nation of Islam from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963.

                              The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in a week-long television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, The Hate That Hate Produced, that explored fundamentals of the Nation of Islam and Malcolm's emergence as one of its most important leaders. After the special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad.

                              Racial tensions ran increasingly high during the early 1960s. In addition to the media, Malcolm's vivid personality had captured the government's attention. As membership in the Nation of Islam continued to grow, FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted at Malcolm's bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps and cameras surveillance equipment to monitor the group's activities.

                              Malcolm's faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the civil rights movement in 1963. He learned that Elijah Muhammad was secretly having relations with as many as six women in the Nation of Islam, some of which had resulted in children. Since his conversion Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Muhammad, including remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad's request to keep the matter quiet. He was deeply hurt by the deception of Muhammad, whom he had considered a prophet, and felt guilty about the masses he had lead into what he now felt was a fraudulent organization.

                              When Malcolm received criticism after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy for saying, "[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon," Muhammad "silenced" him for 90 days. Malcolm suspected he was silenced for another reason. In March 1964 he terminated his relationship with the Nation of Islam and founded the Muslim Mosque, Inc.

                              That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The trip proved life altering, as Malcolm met "blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers." He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration. This time, instead of just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for all races.

                              Relations between Malcolm and the Nation of Islam had become volatile after he renounced Elijah Muhammad. Informants working in the Nation of Islam warned that Malcolm had been marked for assassination (one man had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in his car). After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty and their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed (the family escaped physical injury).

                              At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965 three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage and shot him 15 times at close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York's Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm's funeral in Harlem at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ on February 27, 1965. After the ceremony, friends took the shovels from the gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters.

                              Malcolm's assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson were convicted of first-degree murder in March 1966. The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam.

                              On February 21st 1965 as Malcolm X stood to address a meeting in the Audubon Ball Room in New York City, he was shot in the chest with bullet from a sawn-off shot gun. No evidence directly linked the death of the revolutionary Afro-American Muslim leader to the CIA, but suspicions still persist. Malcolm's opened condemnation of the CIA and US involvement in the. The day before he was schedule to address a summit conference of African Prime Ministers in Cairo, he collapsed with sever stomach pains after eating a meal at his hotel. He now suspected that the agency was out to get him, but still continued his campaign. As rumours of the agency's intentions spread, Malcolm was refused entry into France. A few days before he was shot his home in Queens was "fire bombed": A warning sign of what was to come. It was assumed that Malcolm's death was the result of sectarian revenge.

                              "Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today"

                              A year earlier Malcolm had split from Elijah Mohammed's Nation of Islam to set up his own group; the Organization of Afro-American unity. The view held by many prominent blacks however was that Malcolm killing was a political act with international implications. Malcolm's successor Leon Ameer, determined to expose the agency, scheduled a press conference during which he was to present evidence pointing to Malcolm's real killers. The next morning Ameer was found dead in Boston's Sherry Biltmore Hotel. The police report stated that he had died of an epileptic fit; ironically he had no medical history of epilepsy. Malcolm X had been on the CIA watch list for sometime. The timing of his assassination coincided with numerous events namely his acceptance of orthodox Islam. And more over his extension of his initial localised policy to one that would call for global unity of African nations enlisted the help of many notable Muslim leaders in their respective countries. Malcolm X had grown from a local menace to an international voice for the oppressed Blackman. His power was on the rise and in a pre-emptive action; he was silence and his blood placed completely on the hands of the nation of Islam.

                              Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

                              http://www.africanlegends.info/
                              I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there.
                              Marcus Garvey

                              satire protected speech soo more fiyah

                              Comment


                              • #75
                                Originally posted by jah_yout
                                time to get rid of it...
                                it was needed in carter g woodson's time but having this now is absurd---

                                the so-called black man/woman/child is now being hurt mentally by this "black history month"...time to evolve spiritually and leave out the cult of white-worship;

                                i an i live a universal my-story life, not "black history month"...while recognizing & honoring the afrikan ancestral stamp
                                Originally posted by blugiant View Post
                                intarestinn argument butt da realitee dat iff natt fe blakk histaree month moas blakk students wood natt learn bout blakk histaree. blakk histaree iss a joke cah da shortest month aff de ear mean blakk kno doan learn enuff bout blakk histaree fe improve demselves esteem

                                the reality is that we have not evolved beyond the point of viewing yourselves in the context of white supremacy or of being mental infants...
                                we can't seem to envision a world where your so-called 'oyinbo' is not our master...
                                you see, in a world where 'the man' is not your master there is no need for something as absurd as 'black history month' because you study so-called black history all year every year---

                                the mental slave needs a reminder every year that he should study his own history---at least for a month anyway;

                                even all these decades after marcus garvey and bob marley tell unnu fi emancipate thyself from mental slavery, unnu waah come uphold the mental slavery ting...

                                haffi bun out all weak-out conception
                                wipe dem outta creation
                                Last edited by jah_yout; 02-09-2014, 05:47 PM.

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