Commentary

5 Reasons Many Jamaicans Don’t Understand Racism

Reasons Jamaicans Dont Understand Racism
Written by Glen Benjamin

In the age of racially-charged discussions and political correctness, some Black Americans may think that Jamaicans do not get racism. Many don’t. Jamaicans who arrive in the US sometimes have a difficult time understanding racism. It isn’t that we are not aware of racial disparities but rather, being from a country which is predominantly black, it sometimes has to hit us in the face before we are able to recognize it. Here are some possible reasons Jamaicans don’t get racism.

1. We did not grow up seeing race.
When we played Chinese skipping or marbles with our friends, we didn’t see race. Some were probably Indian or Chinese descendants but our friends were just our friends – not people of a different race. In fact, for many of us, it wasn’t until adulthood that we began to notice what was ‘different’ about our childhood friends, and even then it didn’t matter.

2. We filter things differently.
Since we haven’t been exposed to blatant racism in our own country, we don’t readily conclude that someone’s action toward us might be racist – even if it is. For example, if we get into an elevator and people move to the side, we might think there is a problem but don’t automatically assume racism. Likewise, in a restaurant if we are not served right away, we won’t necessarily think that it is because we are black. Our social construct did not expose us to these behaviours at home which allow us to see it through different eyes.

3. Jamaicans cling to the “Out of Many One People” motto.
We believe in our motto that proudly proclaims our heritage as a mixed race people. We openly talk about our DNA makeup – who is mixed with what race and nationality. It’s a natural thing for us and being mixed does not make you any less Jamaican.

4. There are no black or white neighbourhoods.
The neighbourhoods in Jamaica are not distinctively white or black. Rather they are divided along socioeconomic class which, in Jamaica, is a much bigger issue than racism itself. There are many who feel that people of a lower socio-economic background don’t belong in certain communities regardless of how hard they have worked to achieve what they have. For Jamaicans, discrimination because you are poor is a much more profound issue than racism.

5. No Race/Ethnicity Forms.
In the US, most official documents will ask you to state your race or ethnicity. This is not the case in Jamaica. The most you may be asked is to state your nationality. But your race or ethnicity is not important and is not a determining factor for whether you will access certain benefits.

Recent events have pushed the issue of race into the limelight even more. This presents the perfect opportunity for Jamaicans who have now become part of a minority in foreign lands to develop a new perspective and appreciation of the struggle for racial equality. It is also a learning moment for African Americans to understand that not all Blacks everywhere are familiar with race discrimination and oppression. We can both learn from each other and help each other fight racial inequality.

About the author

Glen Benjamin

I strongly believe there are 3 sides to every story. Telling each side is the challenge.

Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that - Martin Luther King

  • PeterC1611

    The world can learn from us!

    • vernakitson

      what the world will learn from us is how to mistreat black people in spectacular ways and then call it something else, or even deny that’s what we are doing. What the world sees, and that we refuse to, is how profoundly racist we are. Trust me, that’s what investors take advantage of. Just ask foreign investors, and they will tell you – they are flabbergasted at how anti-black we are, in a country that is predominantly black. The fact that people don’t even want to call themselves black should tell you something.

  • Jodi Simpson

    This is so true. I 100% endorse and agree everything said in above by Mr. Campbell. As a Jamaican myself I had a hard time adjusting to racism in America. I went to university in NY, and having never been to the states before, it was only then I had ever thought being black was a disadvantage. Not that I’m ashamed of my color nor my heritage, but “every whey yuh tun, yuh hear dem talkin bout MINORITY”. In Jamaica we have every different type a blood mix up in a wi, and this is a proud part of heritage that we have embraced. To this day I still can’t get over them calling me a Minority. Tell me why am I minority? And don’t even get me started on the African American part, my race is simply Black or African. So in France and England we should be called African European.
    I am Black of African decent, a proud Jamaican and by no means a minority.

    • Khalid Asad

      Racism does exist in Jamaica. Who owns all the hotels, light skin vs. dark skin, the school and trades steer Jamaicans towards servitude, most of the Prime Ministers were light skin, Marcua Garvey dealt with this issue and grew frustrated and left. Jamaicans are mentally enslaved and dont realize it. Born, there, raised there, visit there, see myself.

    • Found this post searching something else completely different – that said

      Im white grew up in primarily black cities. I worked with A LOT of Jamaicans. Funny guys but outright racist to the BONE and with no qualms about it. Mostly towards other blacks though (American Blacks), that I always found odd but wont go into reasons why they say it.
      Side note: doesnt Jamaica have a massive Asian population as well though?
      I think Minority is primarily a US terminology. Its meant to make people feel inferior or like they need someone to “protect” them. Its something the politics of this country use to control groups.
      I just recently went through the “African American” discussion with someone I know who works HR. I find it to personally be an outdated term that needs to be phazed out because obviously not all Black American’s are of African decent and from the Jamaicans Ive met in the past would more or less like to not be referred as.

      “it was only then I had ever thought being black was a disadvantage”

      I think “thought” was the prime word you used in that phrase. You thought it was a disadvantage because you probably started hearing our brainwashed culture feeding it to you.
      Let me tell you if thats your pic, you are obviously stunning (not online flirting) and you would have very little disadvantages here (the US) where beauty and class (money) seems to be a larger deciding factor than anything. I hope you keep your head on tight, like it seems, and never fall into the persuasion traps this society leaves out for people with seemingly much less “self” than you.

  • Anthony Bailey

    good solid points

  • vernakitson

    Are you serious?? There is more than enough research and analysis about race and racism in Jamaica available at this time that this article is dated, to say the least. Had you written this in 1990, it would still be problematic, but I could understand why you thought these things.

    As it stands, It’s a mishmash of inaccuracies, wishful thinking and moral posturing.

    For one thing, your understanding of racism is so dated as to be ridiculous. That’s the same kind of reasoning that countries like Brazil and France have used for years to deflect attention away from their mistreatment of black people. “We don’t have Jim Crow or race here, therefore we don’t have racism.” By that measurement, only two countries have ever had what you call racism: South Africa and the U.S.

    A few things about racism in Jamaica that you seem to have missed:

    Almost every black child learns and sings insulting songs about coolie people sh*t pon hot callalloo, and is instructed to call every east asian person “Missa chin”? What is that, exactly?

    Did you notice that black Jamaicans have been talking about racism in Jamaica, since at least, I don’t know, the 1930s? Did you even notice that there is an entire movement (hint: ites, green and gold) that emerged out of Jamaica and that explicitly addresses this issue that you claim that doesn’t exist?

    The people in Jamaica who are the most disenfranchised are black and those who are fixtures in the economic elite are not-black. I wonder where that came from? hmmmm.

    The way that black Jamaicans in Jamaica are treated when they try to talk about racism is also quite telling, but according to you, we don’t ever talk about this until “recently”. When does “recent” start? I hope it includes the 1950s, and didn’t show up when satellite dishes did.

    I wonder what it was that Evon Blake was trying to bring to our attention?

    I wonder why there’s an annual uproar about the beauty contests if we don’t have racism and are unable to understand it?

    I wonder why people can still state, with utter sincerity and clarity that “nutt’n too black nuh good”? And why people think bleaching their skin will give them more privileges and make them more accepted? Hmm. Did all of that fly in through the internet?

    On one point, you are right. We come at the racism question differently. We come at it from the point of denial and rejection, and will do anything to say that it doesn’t matter, even if that means refusing to look at our actual history.

    The question you should ask yourself is why so many Jamaicans are invested in denying that there is racism in Jamaica? Why are they so surprised when they get to the US that they claim that they never experienced racism before?

    Why don’t you ask why we are constantly told that it’s not a problem, to the extent that we believe it and are traumatized when we encounter its manifestations in the US and elsewhere?

    Why don’t you ask why our education system is promoting “out of many one people” as a celebration of race mixing, which would make black people the least desirable ones, and why it’s not promoting “one nation” with many different people?

    And by the way, are you even black, or did you become black when you got to the US? That name “benjamin” – you can’t hide.

    • Jhamol Ross

      I grew up in the hills of St Thomas, maybe that’s why I didn’t see classism until I went to “town school”. Looking back now I see that my friends were x or y race. and it boggles my mind that it never occurred to me as a child. I’m sure of my ignorance as to the intricacies of Jamaican society, but I can vouch that for me at least this article rings true.
      I was never taught anything negative about black people, only in books and documentaries and history class.

      • vernakitson

        Jhamol – “I was never taught anything negative about black people, only in books and documentaries and history class.” Really? In a country where people still look at their skin to decide whether they should be called black or not?

        How about you turn that thought around and answer the other question: what positive things were you taught about black people in Jamaica?

        • Jhamol Ross

          I never needed to be told that black was positive, I had no other reason to think otherwise.
          My grades (heights by great men), my attitude (manners carry you through the world), and my behavior (belt and bible tempered) gave no reason to attribute negativity to my skin colour or nationality.
          As a result when I moved to NY teachers loved me, girls from different cultures and religion introduced my to their parents, in front of my parents. There’s Bob Marley, Usain Bolt, any number of Jamaicans that shine anywhere they go, and I needed to be told anything?
          My question is why do you need to be told that there are positive things about black people?

          • vernakitson

            If you didn’t “need to be told” you wouldn’t see the need to point to quotes or morality stories or individuals, or even realize that there was something distinct about blackness that needs to be recognized in the first To claim that you did not “need to be told” is to suggest that somehow, you are above and beyond the racist colonialist society that inhabitants of have been contending with since the early 1500s. Fascinating perspective that. Not even the most race-conscious rasta or garveyite person would claim such a thing.

          • Jhamol Ross

            I’m not claiming that I’m not a product of Jamaican society, I am claiming to be for the most part buffered from racist classist colonialist social norms. On some deep subconscious level it might have some small effect, I wouldn’t rule that out.
            For one I believe in the bible. I have basic reasoning ability, and I grew up in a place where race and class ideology was kept from me. Therefore when I was at last exposed to those things my foundation was already set. My point is I don’t need to look far to find a reason not to believe black means less than, it’s an individual, their character and capabilities, not their skin color or origin that should matter in the secular. Have they heard and accepted the Gospel is what truly matters.

          • NoStressEmpress

            Don’t argue with those waiting for enlightenment, but constantly rejecting it. The article was spot on, for the most part… In my opinion. I’m also a Jamaican.

    • Ricardo J

      Thank you so much for this. I was too lazy to write a competent response to this article, which does prove considerable want of thought on the writer’s part. But I think you hit all the major points.

      • vernakitson

        It could have been written very differently to actually explain how and why so many Jamaicans “frighten” when they encounter anti-black racism. But to do that, the writer would have had to abandon the “Jamaicans are better than African Americans” posture, which is what is really driving this piece of drivel. So infuriating.

    • brian

      I do not know which country you grew up in, but it was not Jamaica. A country that consist of 97% black people was what? racist to themselves? I guess you grew up in a socioeconomic background that was below par and therefore could not participate or was left out of the “country club”. Get a grip, yes there was and still is class distinctions, but blatant racism as in the white countries of this world, mainly the USA, England and some others, TOTAL RUBBISH.

      • vernakitson

        I think that, before you address me in the future, you should do your research on what racism is, what it is not, and what is its relationship to class is in the context of Jamaica. Until then, hol yuh cawna, ignorant uneducated one.

    • Llarge

      I do not necessarily agree with you. The name calling is not hate ‘coolie’ Racisism is hating another race. If they affectionately call ‘cookie or ms chin that does not meant hating. I know for sure I don’t use such words abroad because they don’t like it. Coolie were indenture servants or labourer. These days not all Indians from India are coolies and we didn’t know about the cast system there.

      • vernakitson

        No, racism is not “hating another race”. Racism is not about feeling. It is about 1) how the idea of race (that a group called “black” is inherently different from a group called “white” or “coolie” or whatever) is used to create structures and relationships between people, as well as assign the value to groups; that is where “white” is treated like the norm or standard by which every other group should be measured and addressed; 2) it is about those conscious and unconscious ways that non-white groups are devalued, and how members of those groups are treated as interchangeable and bear whatever the identity is that is imposed on the group, meanwhile, whites are treated as individuals (e.g. see that example about “Missa Chin”). Who gets to decide that “Missa Chin” is affectionate? Certainly not the person who is being called such. The power of the name lies with who gets to do the naming. How do you know that this has to do with racism and power? Although black people in Jamaica still make comments about “backra” (yes, in 2016) to refer to specific white people, they would never, ever, ever dare say that to a white person’s face. Never. One could say that the term “backra” is used affectionately, don’t? But we know differently. The term has no power to demean because of who it is directed at, and who is saying it. Similarly, while I do hear black Jamaicans using that same Ms. Chin to refer to Korean grocers in Flatbush, you also know that “they don’t like it” because it is racist and will call it for what it is. In Jamaica, you can get away with racist behaviour and attitudes and code it as “affection”. That’s exactly what white people in the US south used to say about the terms they used for African Americans – it’s “affection”. Right.

        • KL

          prejudice starts first which leads to racism and i am not guessing dat either. its racism comes from race. Jamaican is a nationality not race.

  • brian

    This is so true, and that is why any Jamaican that travels and live in the States do very very well. We use the system to our advantage, not bawling about racism, only focusing on striving and making better for our children. The reason why we have so many Colin Powels. Oh, just for the record, we do not take shit from anyone, we fight back. Ever seen an angry Jamaican man?, or worse, an angry Jamaican oman?, frightening sight to behold. lol.

    • vernakitson

      Really? So who are all of those people who are living in Edenwald projects in the Bronx, and scraping out a living in Flatbush, and learning how to read at CUNY? They are not Jamaicans? You could have fooled me.

      • Kemar Nosaeb

        I figure you have a profound problem with the whole racism issue. I agree with you Jamaica is indeed a racist place but we don’t allow racial biases to define our lives. In Jamaica we see all Jamaicans of Chinese decent as store keepers or that they all speak mandarin, that’s racism. Racism is a scale not a logical attribute

      • coment8r

        It is statistical fact that African and Caribbean immigrants on average do better economically than their native born US counterparts. Jamaicans are prominent in that group, they simply do not see/process race like a born American does.
        Is Jamaica some racial panacea? No, but there is simply no equating ‘anyting too black nu good’ and systemic, institutionalized racial disparity designed to disenfranchise.

        • vernakitson

          That “on average” effect doesn’t carry past the first generation and is only visible where Jamaicans are concentrated in specific fields. Keep quoting the “on average” as you ignore the illiterate, underemployed, underpaid, poorly housed Jamaican immigrants who are barely scraping by though. The “we are better than them” story is rather good for morale isn’t it? Plus, makes a great entry in the “pull yourself up by the bootstraps” epic.

          If you never name a problem, you never have to address its effects or make any attempts to redistribute power and resources. If everyone understands “nuttn too good…” For exactly what it is supposed to communicate, how exactly do you know that this notion of black inferiority doesn’t have systemic and systematic effects on the way people think and act? By the way, the “i am not black, I am jamaican” argument artfully deployed by so many both here and there is quite fascinating. In other words, how come, somehow, this ideology continues to resonate in largely the same way among Jamaicans (and places like Cuba, DR and PR) as it did when first surfaced in the late 1800s? Funny how ideas work.

        • Sensei Rick Senior

          The reason for that is Jamaicans have a country, Jamaicans have a nationality. In America Black is not a Nationality. It used to be written in our constitution that we were considered 1/5th of a human being.

          • Nikita

            Ooh that’s deep. Never thought of it that way.

    • Sensei Rick Senior

      http://withoutsanctuary.org/main.html
      be very careful when you utter the profoundly ignorant statement of “bawling racism”. It makes you sound foolish. P.S. go to that link

  • JamaicanJewel

    This treatise goes to the heart of why West Indians are clamoring for our own designation on the next US Census where we have used ‘other’ since most of us consider ourselves to be Heinz-57-Varities and certainly not ‘black’ which to us is a state of mind. Since most Americans don’t believe me when I tell them I’m Jamaican because I’m ‘red,’ I often check ‘white’ to confound and confuse when I actually speak.

  • Darryl Edwards

    All this may be true, and GOOD FOR JAMAICA! I say it again….GOOD FOR JAMAICA AND THE JAMAICAN PEOPLE!!! The racial extremism that exists in America is going to destroy America some day. Jamaica doesn’t need to adopt America’s brand of racism, and she shouldn’t. In Jamaica, her people have the kind of representation that Blacks in America have long envied—Black teachers, Black doctors, Black workers, Black managers, Black MPs.Jamaica’s most dynamic leader remains Michael Manley—whose Socialist policies of the 1970s make him “Black” as far as the Jamaican people are concerned. Jamaica’s motto “Out of Many One People”— the tragedy of Jamaica is that their leaders have betrayed that motto; they lead the country down the dark path of murderous political tribalism that, even now, has claimed the lives of thousands of Jamaicans.

    • vernakitson

      See, this is why some people should stay off the internet. You showing your chauvinism and ignorance big time.

      “In Jamaica, her people have the kind of representation that Blacks in America have long envied—Black teachers, Black doctors, Black workers, Black managers, Black MPs”

      You have got to be out of your mind. So “Blacks in America” never have teachers, doctors, workers, managers, political representatives??? They need Jamaicans to show them how? When last you pick up a history book or two, sir?

  • Ricardo J

    Yes, the dynamics of racism in Jamaica are not the same as in the states but there is so much wrong with the logic of this article in expressing these differences. It’s scary to think people are actually reading this and thinking these things are true for Jamaica and Jamaicans.

  • Kwabena

    Vernakitson is right.

    Jamaica is VERY racist but mainly towards the black majority and the black
    majority are mainly self haters, which is racism. My name is an Ashanti
    name and Ashantis are from Ghana in west Africa. The only female
    national hero of Jamaica, is an Ashanti. The national fruit of Jamaica
    is from Ghana. But you hate your African roots so much yet it’s all
    around you. That alone is racism when you hate yourself.

    Wasn’t it just the other day mixbreeds like Sean Paul and his wife was talking shit about pureblooded Usain Bolt? What do you call that? They are both rich, so you can’t come with “classism” lol

    If you aren’t Africans, then give back the Ashanti people their majority words of you use in patois and the same for the other Africans that were enslaved and you have descent from. Shit, just stop talking patois altogether. Stop using your proverbs and sayings, stop bout: “Puss an dawg no have di same luck”, and “tongue an teet meet” stop eating: yam; rice and peas; green banana; bammy; festival and ackee. Stop celebrate John Canoe, because that was an Akan man also from Ghana, an African. Give them back those Adinkra symbols you have on your grills and on your walls. Stop dancing the way you dance with your hips, stop bath a river, stop tell Ananse story. Stop boast di way unu love boast, stop gwan like unu a best ting ever; because Ashantis act like that too for Ghana, like they are the greatest. Give back all that and just act and talk like white people with a British accent. If you are so not an African.

    • coment8r

      The Usain Bolt thing was in fact an example of the classism of which the author speaks.That ‘they’re both rich’ proves, not disproves it. If ‘Usain Bolt’ was some born poor young rising star in the banking sector who kept quiet at home, no one around him would care that he was black.In fact he’d be welcome. In other places, his skin color alone might have either kept him from buying the house at all, or made his white neighbors ‘white flight’ out of there if he could.

    • Jhamol Ross

      I propose that who you are as an individual is what is important. Personally my value is based on what the bible tells me, I don’t think anyone could tell me that I am anything more or less than what the bible says I am. Whether it’s my gender race income level intelligence it matters not I have an anchor. We don’t need to lift anyone up or put anyone down to have self worth.

  • coment8r

    If this article and opposing comments proves anything, it’s that race is a very subjective and nuanced thing. There are many similarities but very significant differences in the black Jamaican and black American experiences. And it absolutely shows when Jamaicans emigrate.
    They do better as a group, as do other Caribbean and African immigrants. This is just statistical fact – look it up. This tells me that there is something fundamentally different when you grow up in a black majority, even when you have many of the same slavery based self hatred issues.
    Something very bad was added to the mix in America, which was already predominantly white. The evolution of black and white together went very badly awry. Jim crow, institutionalized racism etc got deep into the American DNA. and again – it shows.
    Jamaica may not have been some ethnic panacea, but it is without a doubt that ‘out of many one people’ has done vastly better in healing old wounds than ‘the great melting pot’.

    And always remember another wise saying – ‘blacker the berry?!…..’ 😉

  • MichelleSpice

    Racism classism same s… just different smell! As the human race we need to dismantle and eliminate these ills. They have created more divides and than we care to acknowledge. We Jamaicans are great people we just have to recognize and acknowledge that. Our culture is the most unique in this world and everyone knows about us and or have been to JA. So as it stands again we can put another great chapter in our history by addressing classism as a great divide. It empowers us in no way it only hurts us. Both isms should have place in civilized societies!

  • SnoopLion

    Naaah, not entirely true. In Jamaica, racism raises its ugly head many times, what makes it even worse is that our own black people are the perpetrators. I went to Jewelz Resort(They need to be called out) and the racism that was meted out to me and my friends by the staff was disgusting. Every time we passed, we were being closely monitored by security and the front-desk clerks. If we exit the compound 5 times straight and spend less than a minute and reenter, we go through the initial process all over again, while white folks were walking back and forth freely and all they were greeted with were smiles and “good mornings”. Police on the road mostly stop black people. The brown man is hardly ever pulled over out here. Many Jamaicans still have a slave mentality, let’s not hide that fact, however I must say, I do feel safer living here than if I was to move to America where it seems to be open season on black folks.

  • AmazingByTheResponse

    The real test of racism is this. Do you treat those with light skin and European features better then their equally attractive dark skin and negroid features?

  • sergent tax

    Yeah right… Either your slow, live under a rock…naive, plain stupid, or your a woman thats the only way as a Jamaican you dont notice racism….. Chinese people and o dian people and also Surians ate racist in Jamaica …

  • We Hobson

    Some other things I have heard Jamaicans say about Jamaica: first world country; superpower (seriously); best road system in the world; happiest people in the world; no poverty exists there; we’d be better off if “we” remained a British colony. I could go on but I don’t do dystopia (imaginary places) very well. Be well.

  • Llarge

    Racism starts with recrimination against a certain group because of their colour and when act upon it becomes racism. When my daughter came to London I did enlighten her about racism and how to identify it. I agree with this article 100%. You never put it better. I thought about it but never know how to word it. I never face racism here except for one Latina who is not even from the UK . He was trying to provoke me was saying ‘hit me hit me’. I did call the police and arrested him but.

    I think people are selective whom they are racial bias against. I read one comment where a white girl says its depends who the person is. Not sure what that means. But if they hate one black national and accept another black national what is that? I always thought to myself I cannot get caught up this race issue but I will support those who experienced it. Most of other races seemed to embrace Jamaican more than any other black national. Are we too quickly ready to place the race card? Surely we do experience the same social exclusion in most cases as our African American brothers and sisters, maybe that is why we ‘don’t get racism’

  • kesha stewart

    i think this piece is either poorly done or there needs to be a part 2 this blog America is to racism as jamaica is to classicism. First of all think Jamaicans find white people inferior in terms of their skin tone and they naturally appear to be weaker than us. But in Jamaica its where you reside or your parentage or you’re looks determine who you are on the classicism pyramid. the first 2 is self explanatory but the 3rd one i wanna get into it a bit. what i mean by the looks is that if you’re mixed and its a good mix then society accept you. hence the bleach situation. If you’re black in Jamaica you might get lesser oportunities in life. Alot of people pretend that it isn’t there. but all you have to do is listen to how they speak to you not what they say. and how you are treated. and all of this is clearly demonstrated when Sean Paul’s wife Jodi ‘Jinx’ Stewart-Henriques commented on twitter that Usain Bolt should go back where he came from and that’s country. there is so much that i could add to this but that would take time time. and dont forget this saying ” If you white step up in a di light, if yuh brown stick around, if you black tan a back.” and there are many other black negative jamaican comments. And its not just black people that use to be teased. Back then light skin people use to be called ‘sailor man pickney’. this is because if you were light skin people would think that your mother was a prostitute for sailers who use to come to Jamaica e.g Bob Marley use to be teased. And Indian person use to be called coolie which is another racist negative remark. Please do some more research.

  • Nikita

    100% correct! The first time I was referred to as a color I was age 22 & migrated to the states. It was very strange for me. I’m not ashamed of my color, I’m just not from a box of crayons or a paint swatch. Imagine having to tell my 63 year old mom when she got here “you’re Hispanic due to your obvious Cuban name” Well, now we get mail in Spanish & of course she does not speak Spanish, LOL. I’ve determined the U.S. Likes to put people in boxes. Proud to be Jamaican. #ColorBlind

  • Daniel Waka Waka Mark

    I wonder who, where, when and how the research was conducted for this article?

  • criminologist

    For country that is 97% of African Ancestry talking about out of many one people is surprising by itself, it should just be one people. I will leave with one note, colourism is a symptom of racism, thus they are basically one and the same.

  • We have also had a 50+ year timeline advantage over the Americans, so what time heals, has been healed.